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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The ureilite meteorite group is known to be rich in carbon in the form of graphite/diamond veins that are associated with planetary type noble gases. This paper reports preliminary data from a systematic study of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of this carbonaceous vein material. A previous study focused on the whole rock signatures and reported that the carbon inventory appeared to be dominated by the graphitic/diamond intergrowths, whereas the nitrogen was clearly composed of several distinct components including one that was isotopically light, possibly associated with the carbonaceous material. Recent studies have demonstrated that diamonds in the solar system formed in many different environments. C and N measurements from ureilitic diamond made in a similar way would be a useful addition to this overall study. The methods used for isolating diamonds of possible presolar origin from primitive meteorites are equally applicable to the processing of carbon bearing components in the ureilite group so that their stable isotopic composition can be determined. Herein we discuss conjoint C and N stepped combustion measurements made on crushed whole rock ureilite samples that have been treated with 1M HCl/9M HF to dissolve silicate and free metal. In addition, two samples have been further treated with oxidizing acids to leave a diamond rich residue.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-Fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 3: N-Z; p 1221-1222
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Over the past several years, short-submillimeter observations of carbon monoxide's (CO) mid-J rotational levels have revealed the presence of a large amount of excited molecular gas in luminous giant molecular clouds in our Galaxy. Submillimeter lines are specific probes of excited material: collisional excitation of the level energy of 116 K above ground, and 6-5 transition's critical density is approximately 10(exp 6) cm(exp -3) in optically thin gas. Radiative trapping effects reduce the excitation requirements to some extent, but detection of the CO J=6-5 line is nearly indisputable proof of the existence of gas that is both warm and dense. The excitation conditions also imply that cool (T less than 20 K) molecular clouds within the beam neither emit nor absorb in the short-submillimeter lines; in our Galaxy, clouds with active massive star formation emit the strongest short-submillimeter CO rotational lines. We used these properties to explore the distribution of excited molecular material and physical conditions within the star formation regions of several classical starburst nuclei: NGC253, M82, and IC342. We have used the 6-5 transition as a thermometer of warm molecular gas in starburst nuclei, unambiguously finding that the nuclear molecular gas in starburst galaxies is substantially warmer than in typical disk clouds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 159-160
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  • 3
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Two types of furnaces with differing temperature range capabilities were used to provide variations in melt temperatures and cooling rates in a study of the effects of heterogeneous nucleation on crystallization. Materials of chondrule composition were used to further understanding of how the disequilibrium features displayed by minerals in rocks are formed. Results show that the textures of natural chondrules were duplicated. It is concluded that the melt history is dominant over cooling rate and composition in controlling texture. The importance of nuclei, which are most readily derived from preexisting crystalline material, support an origin for natural chondrules based on remelting of crystalline material. This would be compatible with a simple, uniform chondrule forming process having only slight variations in thermal histories resulting in the wide range of textures.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-CR-174103 , NAS 1.26:174103
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This is the eighth in a series of volumes pertaining to the Polar Region Outer Magnetosphere International Study (PROMIS). This volume contains 24 hour stack plots of 1-minute average, H and D component, ground magnetograms for the period March 10 through June 16, 1986. Nine midlatitude ground stations were selected from the UCLA magnetogram data base that was constructed from all available digitized magnetogram stations. The primary purpose of this publication is to allow users to define universal times and onset longitudes of magnetospheric substorms.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NAS 1.15:105048-VOL-8 , NASA-TM-105048-VOL-8 , NSSDC/WDC-A-R/S-90-10-VOL-8
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The 10 micron spectra of comets Halley (1982i), Wilson (1986l), Kohoutek (1973f) and Bradfield (1987s) are presented and compared. The silicate emission profiles of Halley and Bradfield are seen to be remarkably similar in that both contain a sharp break in the spectrum at 11.3 microns. Comet Bradfield does not show the same double peak structure seen in olivine and reported in Comet Halley be Campins and Ryan (1988) and Bregman, et al. (1987). The authors interpret the 11.3 micron signature as being due to olivine-type dust grains with at least some degree of crystallinity. Olivine alone is not enough to reproduce the shape of the 10 micron structure. However, in view of the authors' past success in fitting interstellar dust features with the emissivity profile obtained from amorphous grains produced by laser-vaporizing olivine, this is a very appealing identification. They note that there are significant variations in olivine spectra due to compositional differences, grain size distribution and related grain temperature variations to make the olivine identification tentative. They further tentatively identify the 9.8 micron feature in Halley as being due to either amorphorous olivine or a phyllosilicate (layer lattice). Neither the spectra of Halley, Kohoutek, nor Bradfield exhibited the 12.2 micron feature seen in Comet Wilson, which may prove diagnostic of the composition or thermal history differences between these comets. IR spectra of various mineral samples are discussed in terms of their match to cometary spectra.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, Interstellar Dust: Contributed Papers; p 417-422
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: Consideration is given to: the mass loading of planetary magnetospheres by rocky satellites; the effects of electrostatic forces on the vertical structure of planetary rings; and dust motion in Jupiter's tilted magnetic field. Other topics include: IRAS observations of cometary dust; dust environment models for Comet P/Halley; plasma processes and solar wind interaction; and cometary interplanetary field enhancements in the solar wind. Consideration is also given to: the impact of dust grains on fast fly-by spacecraft; EUV observations of Comet Halley; and the thermal model and thermo-mechanical stresses in cometary nuclei.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: (ISSN 0273-1177)
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Deep space tracking stations on different continents were arrayed during the encounter of the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft with the comet Giacobini-Zinner during September 9 through 12, 1985. This is the first time that telemetry signals received on different continents have been combined to enhance signal to noise ratio. The arraying was done in non-real time using the method of symbol stream combining. The improvement in signal to noise ratio was typically 2 dB over the stronger of the two stations in each array.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Telecommunications and Data Acquisition Report; p 220-228
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: The carbon isotopic composition of diamond grains isolated from the Novo Urei meteorite are discussed. A diamond separate was obtained from 2g of whole rock using the chemical treatments described aimed at obtaining very pure diamond. X ray diffraction of the residue, which represented 5000 ppm of the parent mass, indicated only the presence of the desired mineral. The diamond crystals were 1-30 microns in diameter, and some grains had a yellow color. The chemical treatments were followed by a size separation to give a 1-10 microns and a 5-30 microns fraction, which were named DNU-1 and DNU-2, respectively.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst., Twenty-fourth Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Part 1: A-F; p 485-486
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: The observed bow shock encounters at Mercury, Venus and Mars are least square fit using the same technique so that their sizes and shapes can be intercompared. The shock front of Mercury most resembles the terrestrial shock in shape, and the shock stand off distance is consistent with the observed moment. The shapes of the Venus and Mars shock fronts more resemble each other than the earth's and the stand off distances are consistent with direct interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere on the dayside. The Venus shock is closer to the planet than the Mars shock suggesting more absorption of the solar wind at Venus.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters; 4; Oct. 197
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Spectrophotometric observations from 2.1 to 4.1 microns of a variety of objects exhibiting the 3.3-micron emission feature (first detected in NGC 7027) are reported. The characteristics of the feature, the various environments in which it is found, and possible emission mechanisms are discussed in light of all the available observations of the feature to date. A resonance feature in solids is the most probable emission mechanism; however, no satisfactory identification has yet been made on the basis of infrared spectroscopy of terrestrial materials.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 213
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