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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Utilizing the electron and magnetic field data from the ICE tail traversal of comet Giacobini-Zinner along with the MHD equations, a steady state, stress balance model of the cometary magnetotail was developed, and used to infer important but unmeasured ion properties within the magnetotail at ICE and upstream at the average point along each streamline where cometary ions are picked-up. The derived tailward ion flow speed at ICE is quite constant at approx. -20 to -30 km/sec across the entire tail. The flow velocity, ion temperature, density, and ion source rates upstream from the lobes (current sheet) at the average pick-up locations are approx. -75 km/sec (approx. -12), approx. 4 million K (approx. 100,000), approx. 20 cc (approx. 400), and approx. 15 cu cm/sec. Gradients in the plasma properties between the two regions are quite strong. Implications of inferred plasma properties for the near-nucleus region and for cometary magnetotail formation are examined.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley's Comet. Volume 1: Plasma and Gas; p 301-304
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Results are presented from an intensive optical and IR monitoring program of the flux and polarization characteristics of BL Lac. It is found that the polarization variations increase in amplitude with increasing time interval, and that the path traced out by the polarization vector in the Q-U plane is a random walk. In view of earlier measurements of BL Lac, the polarization fluctuations can be represented at low frequencies by the flat power spectrum of white noise, up to a frequency of 0.05 cycles/day. Above this frequency, the spectrum steepens to that of a random walk. A model for BL Lac suggested by the polarimetric noise can be constructed from independent sources of light with randomly oriented, strong polarization. Small random differences in spectral index from source to source could also explain the variable wavelength dependence of polarization.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 260
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The mid-infrared spectrum of a continuously increasing number of stellar objects, planetary and reflection nebulae, H-II regions and extragalactic sources show a distinctive set of broad emission features at 3.3, 3.4, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.3 micron known collectively as the unidentified infrared emission bands. A model is summarized in which the bands arise from positively charged polycyclic hydrocarbons (PAH's) on the basis of their low ionization potential and the excellent agreement between the emission bands and laboratory spectra of auto exhaust which contains these types of molecules. The proposed presence of PAHs in such a variety of objects points to their presence in the interstellar medium. Out of a previously published collection of solid state PAH radical cation spectra five were selected on the basis of the unique thermodynamic stability of their carrier and compared directly to the wavelengths of the DIB's. Although the match seems quite favorable, strongly suggesting that PAH radicals are the long sought after carrier of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands, much laboratory work must be done to test this hypothesis.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Washington. Interrelationships among Circumstellar, Interstellar and Interplanetary Dust; 2 p
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Observations have been made of the southwest outflow lobe of L1551 in several millimeter and submillimeter molecular lines. Maps have been made in the J=3-2 and J=2-1 transitions of CO over areas of 7.5 by 2.5 arc minutes and 5 by 5 arc minutes respectively at UKIRT. More detailed maps have also been made in the J=2-1 CO transition over an area of about 6 by 3.5 arc minutes at the NRAO 12m telescope. Additional observations of the J=4-3 transitions of HCN, HCO(+) abd H(13)CO(+) were made at selected positions. The HC(+) J=4-3 transition was detected at several positions along the outflow axis and at the position of IRS 5. Similarly the HCN J=4-3 transition was detected at the position of IRS 5 and also at a position close to HH29. However, the J=4-3 transition of H(13)CO(+) was bit detected at the position of IRS 5 even through it was observed at the position close to HH29 with a peak corrected antenna temperature of 0.23K at a V(LSR) of 1 km s(-1). The detection of the J=4-3 transitions of both HCO(+) and H(13)CO(+) close to the position of HH29 suggest the presence of very dense gas in this region. LVG analysis of the various molecular lines observed give a kinetic temperature between 10 and 15K and a density from 10(5) to 10(6) cm(-3) at the position of IRS 5 at the ambient cloud velocity. At the position close to HH29 LVG analysis of the CO observations gives a density between 10(3) and 10(4) cm(-3) at a kinetic temperature of 25k for a V(LSR) of 0 km s(-1). To the southwest of HH29 there is a large decrease in both the linewidth and intensity of CO emission. This may be due to the interaction between the outflow and a dense clump of gas which gives rise to HH29. The maps of the CO J=3-2 and CO J=2-1 emission integrated in 3.25 km s intervals show the shell structure postulated by Snell and Schloerb (1985).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center Summer School on Interstellar Processes; Abstracts of Contributed Papers; p 3-4
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: X-ray, UV and optical data are presented of the longest period AM Her object, E2003+225, from October 12, 1983, together with a new linear polarization ephemeris. The optical and X-ray data were obtained simultaneously and the UV observations were carried out on the same day. A 6-hr observation with the Exosat 500 line/mm objective grating restricts soft X-ray blackbody temperatures to the range 18-29 eV. The blackbody luminosity exceeds the hard X-ray luminosity by at least a factor of 4.5, but is of the same order as the optical/UV component. Soft (0.1-0.25 keV) and hard X-ray (1-6 keV) light curves covering almost two orbital periods are presented and discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Astronomical Society, Monthly Notices (ISSN 0035-8711); 221; 823-838
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: If gamma ray bursts are at cosmological distances-as suggested by their isotropic distribution on the sky and by their number-intensity relation-then the burst profiles will be stretched in time, by an amount proportional to the redshift, 1 + Z. We have tested data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory's (CGRO's) Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) for such time dilation. Out of 590 bursts observed by BATSE, 131 bursts were analyzed; bursts with durations shorter than 1.5 s were excluded. We used three tests to compare the timescales of bright and dim bursts, the latter, on average, being more distant than the former. Our measures of timescale are constructed to avoid selection effects arising from intensity differences by rescaling all bursts to fiducial levels of peak intensity and noise bias. (1) We found that the total rescaled count above background for the dim burst ensemble is approximately twice that for the brightest bursts-translating into longer durations for the dim bursts. (2) Wavelet-transform decompositions of the burst profiles confirmed that this dilation operates over a broad range of timescales. (3) Structure on the shortest timescales was examined using a procedure which aligns the highest peaks of profiles from which the noise has been optimally removed using a wavelet threshold technique. In all three tests, the dim bursts are stretched by a factor of approximately 2 relative to the bright ones, over seven octaves of timescale. We calibrated the measurements by dilating synthetic bursts that approximate the temporal characteristics of bright BATSE bursts. Results are consistent with bursts at BATSE's peak-flux completeness limit being at cosmological distances corresponding to Z approximately equal to 1, and thus with independent cosmological interpretations of the BATSE number-intensity relation. Alternative explanations of our results, arising from the nature of physical processes in bursts, are still possible.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 424; 2; p. 540-545
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: Ram ion measurements made by the Giotto neutral mass spectrometer show the spatial evolution of the composition and energy spectrum of coma ions. Near the nucleus the plasma is cold and has many constituents, but at distances of the order of 200,000 km the main ions are the terminal products of water dissociation, H(+) and O(+). The ion velocity distribution at the time of the Giotto encounter is highly anisotropic. Ion flow is generally away from the comet with energies increasing with distance to the order of 100 eV in the comet frame of reference. Similarities in the proton and oxygen ion energy spectra in the comet frame suggest an acceleration mechanism other than v x B pickup.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ESA, Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley's Comet. Volume 3: Posters 415-417 (SEE N87-26714 20-90); ESA, Proceedings of
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-29
    Description: During the early phase of the Giotto encounter with comet Halley, at distances from the nucleus greater than 350,000 km, the neutral mass spectrometer was operated in a mode allowing the measurement of low energy ions. Data reveal two important features of the outer coma: the presence of a sharp discontinuity in the plasma flow at 550,000 km from the nucleus which results in a significant decrease of the plasma flow accompanied by an increase in temperature; and the detection of newly born ions identified as O(+) and CO(+), at distances from the comet greater than 800,000 km.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: ESA Proceedings of the 20th ESLAB Symposium on the Exploration of Halley's Comet. Volume 1: Plasma and Gas; p 175-178
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The dynamic spectra of several low frequency extragalactic radio sources are presented. The observations were made at 318, 430, 606, 880, and 1400 MHz at several different radio observatories around the U.S. Two outbursts were observed in AO 0235 + 16 at 1.4 GHz, followed by a diminished variation at the lower frequencies. The dynamic frequencies of NRAO 140, PKS 1117 + 14, DA 406, CTA 102, and 3C 454.3 do not fit the same pattern. These radio sources displayed the following characteristics: (1) departure from straight or curved spectra at the frequencies of variation; (2) no obvious frequency drifting; and (3) negligible variation at 1.4 GHz. Possible explanations for this behavior are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 281; L55-L58
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Experimental data from Ariel 5 on the spectral shape and time variability of Ser X-1 are presented, and possible explanations for the observations are discussed in terms of current theoretical suggestions for source emission. The observations are summarized in the form of a light curve for 3-7.6-keV photons. The data are fitted with a power law of index -2.3, which yields a hydrogen column density of (1.1 + or - 0.4) x 10 to the 22nd power atoms/sq cm. No persistent periodicity of amplitude greater than 5% of the steady flux is found, but evidence of statistically significant burst activity is obtained. Various emission mechanisms are considered for the time-averaged spectrum and the X-ray bursts. It is suggested that the inverse Compton mechanism is a likely cause for the emission from this source and that the source is radiating near the Eddington limit.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Astronomical Society; vol. 184
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