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  • ASTROPHYSICS  (44)
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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The constraints that the available X-ray spectral and imaging data place on the mass distribution and mass to light ratio of rich clusters are considered. It was found for the best determined cases that the mass to light ratio is less than 125 h sub 50 at radii exceeding 1 h sub 50 Mpc. The mass to light ratio is approximately constant at radii exceeding 1 h sub 50 Mpc but may rise to values of roughly 200 h sub 50 in the central regions. The fraction of the total mass that is in baryons, primarily the hot X-ray emitting gas, is roughly 30 percent thus setting the mass to light ratio of the dark material to roughly 70. The model that fits the X-ray data for Coma is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion vs. radius data.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 317; 593-600
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Redshifts and K magnitudes have been obtained for a small but complete sample of 22 galaxies with B magnitudes down to 24. In the luminosity range B = 23-24, the B-band galaxy counts are dominated by a population of small blue galaxies at z roughly 0.25, which may collectively contain as much baryonic matter as the normal galaxies. It is possible either that these earlier galaxies have undergone merging to create the present galaxy population, or that they represent a quite different galactic population which has now faded or disappeared. Either possibility has considerable implications for understanding of galaxy formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Nature (ISSN 0028-0836); 354; 460
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The velocities of 38 centrally positioned galaxies (r much less than 100 kpc) were measured relative to the velocity of the first-ranked galaxy in 14 rich clusters. Analysis of the velocity distribution function of this sample and of previous data shows that the population cannot be fit by a single Gaussian. An adequate fit is obtained if 60 percent of the objects lie in a Gaussian with sigma = 250 km/s and the remainder in a population with sigma = 1400 km/s. All previous data sets are individually consistent with this conclusion. This suggests that there is a bound population of galaxies in the potential well of the central galaxy in addition to the normal population of the cluster core. This is taken as supporting evidence for the galactic cannibalism model of cD galaxy formation.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 2 - Letters to the Editor (ISSN 0004-637X); 305; L39-L43
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The results of long-slit spectroscopy obtained for the core regions of 14 clusters of galaxies are reported. The data are presented in detail. It is shown that the presence of optical emission is tied to the properties of the hot gas in the cluster and not to the morphology of the central galaxy or cluster, demonstrating that the optical systems are indeed formed by the cooling of hot gas. Cooling flows occur when the gas density exceeds a critical central value which corresponds to a cooling time scale which, it is argued, weakly favors low values of H(0). The kinematics of the gas flows are discussed. The excitation mechanisms, correlation of optical emission with radio properties, and upper limits on coronal line strengths from the hot gas are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (ISSN 0067-0049); 59; 447-498
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Attention is given to the Ca II K absorption spectra of 48 early-type supergiants in the SMC and LMC, with a view to the Clouds' possible fragmentary nature and the distance of the gas responsible for the absorption lines at 60 and 120 km/sec. The comparison of the spectra obtained with H I measurements toward the Clouds indicates that in both Clouds, the velocity components in the neutral hydrogen distribution lie at different distances along the line of sight. Good agreement is found between the radial velocity shown in absorbing material and the radial velocity spread predicted by Murai and Fujimoto's (1980) dynamical model of the formation of the Magellanic Stream by tidal stripping. It is speculated that both the SMC and LMC are extended and fragmented along the line of sight.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 303; 198-215
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We present spectra and multicolor (B, I, K) data for near-infrared (K) selected spatially complete magnitude limited (K is less than 20) galaxy samples from the Hawaii Survey. The redshift indentification of the sample of 298 galaxies is substantially complete to a B magnitude of 26 and an I magnitude of 22.5, and identification of observed galaxies ranges from nearly 100% completeness at K is less than 18 to approximately 70% completeness at K = 19-20. We note that many of the unidentified objects appear to be red (I-K) objects which are flat in the optical and spectroscopically featureless. Strengths of spectral-line features and breaks are tabulated for the 262 galaxies with reasonably secure redshifts. The measured redshifts may nearly all fall at z is less than or approximately 1, with the exception of a compact absorption-line object at z = 2.35. At K is less than or equal to 18, the redshift distribution is well fitted by a model with no luminosity evolution, implying that from the K-band Hubble diagram, the Hubble constant can vary at most by 10% over the redshift range from z approximately 0.025 to 0.25, and that positive luminosity evolution at any significant level between z = 0 and z = 1 is ruled out. However, the evolution of both the emission-line strengths and the 4000 A break indicates that galaxies were undergoing significantly more star formation at z = 1 than at the present time.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: The Astrophysical Journal (ISSN 0067-0049); 94; 2; p. 461-515
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The dynamics of self-gravitating gaseous density perturbations in the tightly wound spiral-arm model of the forcing potential (Brown 1969) is investigated. The cloud ensemble of the cold phase of the interstellar medium is regarded as a collisional gas whose 'molecules' are the clouds themselves, and the dynamical evolution of density perturbations is calculated assuming this gas obeys a polytropic pressure-density law. It is suggested that the formation of extreme Population I objects found predominantly along the arms of Sb/Sc systems is regulated by an overall energy balance in the cloud fluid. A single parameter is found which appears to characterize the flow's gravitational response to perturbations; this spiral parameter, Q-sub-sp, differs from the Toomre Q parameter by a factor of the square root of the density enhancement at the shock. It is necessary but not sufficient that Q-sub-sp be less than unity for significant growth to occur.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 297; 61-75
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The absence of any continuous Ly-alpha opacity from the intergalactic medium at z = 3-4.5 can be understood if a significant population of star-forming galaxies is present at these redshifts. It is shown that such galaxies can be present within the galaxy populations at B = 22 to 27. The expected ionization produced during galaxy formation is analyzed in terms of highly model-independent metal production arguments and it is concluded that (if such galaxies are dust-free and transparent to ionizing photons) then at least 4(H0/50 km/s Mpc)-cubed percent of galaxy formation would have to have occurred in this redshift range.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 348; 371-377
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: After assessing the theory of cluster gas with polytropic equations of state, and discussing the prediction of local polytropic indices in the gas distribution, attention is given to the consequences of modifying the equation of state by thermal cooling in the central regions of the cluster. It is suggested that, if the equation of state can be understood locally, an attempt may be made at (1) predicting the X-ray luminosities of the clusters at distant cosmological epochs and (2) measuring the evolution of the cluster's potential, through observation of the evolution of X-ray luminosity and surface brightness.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: In: X-ray astronomy with the Einstein satellite; Jan 28, 1980 - Jan 30, 1980; Cambridge, MA
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-06-27
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 215
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