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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos was calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results were then related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data were used to place lower limits on tau. These limits are all well below predicted values. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models or other new physics. Thus an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks or other physics beyond the standard electroweak model may have been found.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-83873
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Grand unified theories (GUT) such as SU(5), with spontaneous symmetry breaking, can lead more naturally to a globally baryon symmetric big bang cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken at random in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Because of the additional freedom in the high-energy physics allowed by such GUT gauge theories, new observational tests may be possible. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and various observational tests are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80306
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: It is suggested that grand unified field theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the very early big-bang can lead more naturally to a baryon symmetric cosmology with a domain structure than to a totally baryon asymmetric cosmology. The symmetry is broken in a randomized manner in causally independent domains, favoring neither a baryon nor an antibaryon excess on a universal scale. Arguments in favor of this cosmology and observational tests are discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-80281
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Several models for the radio emission from immediate postoutburst supernovae are examined under the assumption that the expanding remnant consists of a homogeneously mixed distribution of relativistic particles, magnetic field, and thermal plasma. The evolutionary models are: (1) an adiabatic expansion model; (2) a model incorporating the existence of a central pulsar; and (3) variations on the first two models in which relativistic electrons are accelerated either instantaneously or over an extended period of time and in which ionization, bremsstrahlung, synchrotron, Compton, and expansion losses are explicitly included. The character of the radio emission expected from these models is quite dissimilar. Whereas in adiabatic expansion models the emission is expected to increase slowly and become most intense at high frequencies, in models involving a central pulsar the emission should increase rapidly with a maximum flux density that is the same at all frequencies. The theoretical evolution of the radio emission for each model is compared with observations of SN 1970g.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 220
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Emission from the J = 1-0 transition of H(N-15)C has been detected in the direction of DR21(OH). The transition frequency of 88,865.69 MHz was measured in the laboratory by microwave absorption spectroscopy. The computed N-15/C-13 isotopic abundance ratio of 1.01 for DR21(OH) is larger than those calculated from isotopes of HCN in other interstellar clouds, perhaps implying a localized enrichment in N-15 in DR21(OH).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Royal Astronomical Society; vol. 180
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Observations of Cygnus X-3 have been carried out at 2.5-7.5 keV, 2.2 micrometers, 8.1 GHz, and 2.7 GHz over a two week period. The X-ray data show the periodic structure which is typical of Cyg X-3. At times the X-ray and infrared measurements show very similar periodic structure, both in phase and in shape, while at other times the infrared data show no periodic variability. The radio fluxes were unusually low during the period of observation; both the daily average radio flux levels and the spectral index remained nearly constant.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 207; July 1
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: High-sensitivity observations at the carbon 140-alpha and 141-alpha recombination-line frequencies in the direction of the Rho Oph dust cloud show the presence of recombination lines of carbon and sulfur, but not of other heavy elements. These results require that the elements Si, Fe, and Mg are depleted by factors greater than 15, 10, and 2, respectively, most likely into interstellar grains, whereas sulfur is undepleted. They also require that only approximately one-sixth of the carbon is present in the gas phase in the cloud. From the observed size of the C II region together with the observed carbon depletion, it is inferred that the density in the carbon-line-emitting region is 25,000 per cu cm and that the size of the S II region is significantly larger than that of the C II region. The agreement between the widths of the recombination lines (which arise in a small region of the cloud) and those of the more widely distributed molecular species suggests that the lines in this cloud are broadened by microturbulence on a scale of much less than 0.1 pc.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 206; May 15
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 195; Jan. 1
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: VLBI observations of the extremely compact hot spot in the northern radio lobe of the QSO 3C 196 reveal the angular size of its smallest substructure to be 0.065 arcsec x 0.045 arcsec or about 300 pc at the redshift distance. The morphology of the hot spot and its orientation relative to the more diffuse radio emission suggest that it is formed by an oblique interaction between the nuclear QSO jet and circum-QSO cloud. The inferred density in this cloud, together with its apparent size, imply that the cloud contains a galactic mass, greater than a billion solar masses of gas. The effect of the jet will be to hasten gravitational collapse of the cloud. If many QSOs such as 3C 196 are formed or found in gas-rich environments, the QSO radio phase may commonly stimulate the metamorphosis of circum-QSO gas to QSO-companion galaxies or it may play a significant part in catalyzing star formation in existing companions.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 306; 107-109
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Comet 1983d was named IRAS-Araki-Alcock in honor of its codiscoverers, including the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and two amateur astronomers. It is pointed out that the apparition of Comet 1983d was the closest cometary approach to earth since the development of modern astronomy. Because of the evolution of electromagnetic detector technology, a large range of ground-based observations of this object were possible. In the present investigation, attention is given to observations and some interpretations of the spectrum of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock in the wavelength region from 1.5 to 20 microns. In addition to the observations made with a bolometer and discrete filters, spectrophotometric observations were made of the nuclear condensation of Comet 1983d in the 1.5- to 2.6-micron wavelength region at 5 percent resolution.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 62; 273-281
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