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  • 1
    ISSN: 1420-9055
    Keywords: Lake Lugano (Lago di Lugano) ; palaeolimnology ; Holocene ; organic and inorganic carbon ; biogenic silica ; ostracoda ; oligochaeta cocoons ; laminated sediments ; pollen ; soil erosion ; eutrophication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The Holocene record of Lake Lugano (southern basin: surface area 20.3 km2, maximum depth 87 m) comprising organic carbon-rich sediments (sapropels), is divided into eight intervals based on radiocarbon- and varve-dating. The content of organic carbon, inorganic carbon, and biogenic silica, as well as the benthic remains of ostracods and oligochaetes, are converted into accumulation rates and benthic abundances in order to assess past production rates and bottom water oxygen status, respectively. The results suggest three periods of distinct palaeolimnological character: (i) low primary production combined with shifts between aerobic and anaerobic profundal conditions (prior to ca. 3000 BC), (ii) moderate rates of production combined with a relatively high profundal oxygen content (after ca. 1500 BC), and (iii), high production rates (460 g C m−2 a−1) combined with anaerobic profundal conditions (present eutrophic state). Corresponding organic carbon contents in the sediments are: up to 5% (i), 4% (ii), and 8% (iii). Until the beginning of this century, the flux of autochthonous sediments to the lake floor correlated with the fluctuations in the allochthonous sediment accumulation rate, indicating that catchment erosion largely controlled lacustrine production during the Holocene history of Lake Lugano. Pollen data show catchment-vegetational transformations at ca. 3500 BC (change from fir to beech forests), at 1400 BC (onset of cereal vegetation) and at ca. A.D. 450 (strong increase in various cultural plants). The first two changes had a relatively large imprint on lacustrine sedimentation. At ca. 3500 BP, erosion increase in the catchment was triggered by vegetation changes in the mountain zone above ca. 1000 m a. s. l., which may have been induced by climatic and human alteration (drop in the treeline altitude). Maximum catchment erosion occurred at ca. 1400 BC which was clearly dominated by human cultivation during the Bronze Age. More oxygenated profundal conditions in the lake after ca. 3000 BC are possibly related to a better mixing of the lake waters during the winter season by increased wind activity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: Measurements of stable and radioactive spallation products in meteorites allow to investigate their histories, especially with respect to the exposure to galactic cosmic ray particles and the pre-atmospheric size of the object. While the concentrations of spallation products lead to the determination of exposure and terrestrial ages, production rate ratios are characteristic for the location of the sample in the meteorite. So, one of the aims of this investigation on meteorites is to obtain depth indicators from suitable pairs of cosmogenic nuclides. Because of the different depth profiles for nuclide productions it is necessary to determine the concentrations of a larger number of spallation products in aliquots of a single small sample. Such same sample measurements of Be-10 and light noble gases were performed on 15 ordinary chondrites (7 H- and 8 L-chondrites. Be-10 was determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and the noble gases were measured by static mass spectrometry. The results are summarized and discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides; 3 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The concentrations of cosmogenic nuclides were studied as a function of shielding on samples from a cross section of the 293 kg main fragment of the L5 chondrite Knyahinya. The stone broke into two nearly symmetrical parts upon its fall in 1866. The planar cross section has diameters between 40 and 55 cm. He, Ne, and Ar were measured on about 20 samples by mass spectrometry and the 10-Be activities on aliquots of 10 selected samples were determined by AMS. The 10-Be data are presented and the abundances of spallogenic nuclides are compared with the model calculations reported by Reedy for spherical L chondrites. The 10-Be production rates in Knyahinya are shown versus the shielding parameter 22-Ne/21-Ne.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Inst. Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides; 1 p
    Format: application/pdf
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