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  • Organic Chemistry  (14)
  • Koenigs-Knorr reaction  (2)
  • 2-Amino alcohols  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0941-1216
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Two pyruvated galactosyl donors, 2,3-di-O-benzoyl-4,6-O-[1-(R)-methoxycarbonyl(ethylidene)]-α-D-galactopyranosyl chloride (6) and trichloroacetimidate 13, were coupled to position 3 of suitably protected mono and disaccharide benzyl glucoside acceptors. For both donors, an unusual high content of the α-(1 → 3)-linked products was obtained. The corresponding β-(1 → 3)-linked di- and trisaccharides are related to exopolysaccharides of Rhizobium leguminosarum.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Glycosylation ; Koenigs-Knorr reaction ; Acyl-group migration ; Transesterification ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: 2-O-[2,2,2-D3]Acetyl-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (3) was prepared and used as the glycosyl donor in studying the silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-promoted reaction with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (4) and methyl 2,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (7). In addition to the expected β-linked disaccharides, methyl 6-O-[2,2,2-D3]acetyl-2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (6) and methyl 3-O-[2,2,2-D3]acetyl-2,4,6-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), respectively, were formed. The latter compounds were isolated from the reaction mixture and their structures were confirmed based on spectral data. Thus, it has been proven that, with fully acetylated glycosyl halides as glycosyl donors, in silver trifluoromethanesulfonate-promoted couplings, O-acetylation of the nucleophile occurs as a side reaction, the acetyl group involved originating from position 2 of the glycosyl halide.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Cyanohydrins and cyanohydrin esters, optically active ; Resolutions, kinetic enzyme-catalyzed ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions, 71). - Enantioselective Esterification of Racemic Cyanohydrins and Enantioselective Hydrolysis or Transesterification of Cyanohydrin Esters by LipasesPure cyanohydrin enantiomers (S)-1/(R)-1 and their O-acyl derivatives (R)-3/(S)-3 are obtained from three different lipasecatalyzed reactions: i) enantioselective hydrolysis of aliphatic and aromatic racemic cyanohydrin esters 3, ii) enantioselective acylation of racemic cyanohydrins 1, iii) enantioselective transesterification of 3 with primary alcohols. Both the cyanohydrin esters and the free cyanohydrins (which are prone to racemization) are isolated as enantiomers with high optical purity on a preparative scale. Hydrolysis of the racemic butyrates 3b, e with Candida cylindracea lipase and pseudomonas sp. lipase, respectively, for example, affords the free (S)-cyanohydrins (S)-2-hydroxypentanenitril [(S)-1a] and (S)-mandelonitrile [(S)-1b)] in high yield with 97 and 96% ee, respectively. (S)-1a is obtained with the same optical purity by candida sp. lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 3b with 1-octanol.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: 2-Amino alcohols ; Cyanohydrins ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions, 8. - Stereoselective Synthesis of 2-Amino Alcohols from (R)- and (S)-Cyanohydrinserythro-2-Amino alcohols (1R,2S)- and (1S,2R)-4 may be synthesized stereoselectively by addition of Grignard compounds to cyanohydrins (R)-, (S)-1 and their O-trimethylsilyl derivatives 3, respectively, followed by hydrogenation. The threo-2-amino alcohols (1S,2S)- and (1R,2R)-4 are easily accessible by inversion at C-1 of the (1R,2S) and (1S,2R) compounds.
    Additional Material: 3 Tab.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Liebigs Annalen 1994 (1994), S. 659-664 
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Glycosylations ; Protecting groups ; Benzoyl, 2-chloroacetoxymethyl- ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The application of the 2-(chloroacetoxymethyl)benzoyl (CAMB) group to the O-protection of position 2 in glycosyl donors is described. Saponification of the phthalide and subsequent chloroacetylation of 2-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (1) gave 2-(chloroacetoxymethyl)benzoic acid (2). Treatment of 2 with thionyl chloride afforded the acyl chloride 3. Acylation of O-2 of 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-α-D-glucopyranose (4a), galactopyranose (4b) and of the amino group of 1,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-2-amino-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranose (4c) afforded the fully protected pyranose derivatives 5a-c in high yields. Compounds 5a and 5b were converted with HBr in acetic acid into the corresponding 2-O-CAMB-protected bromides 6a, b in excellent yields. Silver trifluoromethanesulfonate promoted glycosylation of the latter with 2-hydroxyethyl benzoate yielded the β-glycosides 8a (74%) and 8b (69%). Direct activation of the glucosamine derivative 5c with ferric chloride gave the glucoside 8c (54%). Furthermore, the galactosyl bromide 6b was coupled with methyl 2,3,4-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) affording the 2′-O-CAMB-protected methyl glycoside disaccharide 12 (63%). Similarly, condensation of the glucosyl bromide 6a with 4a gave the β-(1→2)-linked disaccharide 13 (45%). Treatment of compounds 8a and 13 with thiourea resulted in the deblocked glycosides 9a and 14. Similar deprotection of 8b gave 2-benzoyloxyethyl 3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (9b) and the 2-O-[2-(hydroxymethyl)benzoyl] derivative 10. Reaction of 8c with thiourea afforded solely the dechloroacetylated glucoside 9c.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Galactosides, 3,4-pyruvylated ; Oligosaccharides ; Carbohydrates ; Escherichia coli ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Treatment of phenyl 1-thio- and allyl 2,6-di-O-benzoyl-D-galactopyranosides 3 with methyl pyruvate and BF3 · Et2O in various solvents gave 1,6-anhydro-3,4-di-O-benzoyl-2-deoxy-2-phenylthio-β-D-idopyranose (4) and the corresponding diastereomers of 3,4-O-pyruvate acetal-containing galactosides 5. The phenyl 1-thio-β-galactoside R-5a and the allyl a-galactoside R-5b were both converted into methyl 3,4-O-[1-(R)-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylidene]-β-D-galactopyranoside (9), the structure of which as well as that of 4 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Compound R-5a was converted into 5-[(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino]pentyl 6-O-benzoyl-3,4-O-[1-(R)-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylidene]-β-D-galactopyranoside (18) by using the (2-chloroacetoxymethyl)benzoyl (CAMB) group for the temporary protection of position 2. Glucosamination of 18 and subsequent deblocking of the intermediate disaccharide gave β-D-GlcpNAc-(1→2)-3,4-(S)-pyruvate-β-D-Galp-O(CH2)5NH2 (21) which represents a fragment of the Escherichia coli K 47 polysaccharide.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Anomerization ; Glycosides ; Glycosyl donors, pyruvylated ; Carbohydrates ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The preparation of 4,6-O-(1-methoxycarbonylethylidene)-D-glycopyranosides 5 starting from 2,3-di-O-benzoyl-D-glycopyranosides 1 and their 4,6-bis-O-trimethylsilyl ethers 2 using methyl 2,2-bis(phenylthio)propionate (4) and methyl pyruvate (3), respectively, under Lewis acid catalysis conditions is described. In the D-gluco series anomerisation of alkyl β-D-glucopyranosides is observed as a side reaction, giving complex mixtures and low yields of the title compounds whereas alkyl-α-D-glucopyranosides and alkyl or phenyl 1-thio-β-D-glucopyranosides react without anomerisation. The reactions are accompanied by isomerisation of the initially formed diastereomer (R)-5 having an equatorial methoxycarbonyl group to the thermodynamically favoured diastereomer (S)-5 having the methoxycarbonyl group in an axial position. In the D-galacto series similar side reactions are observed accompanied by rearrangement to furanosides 9 of alkyl and phenyl β-D-galactopyranosides. The results are used for efficient syntheses of two protected disaccharides 8 and 11 representing structural fragments of the polysaccharide repeating units of Mycobacteria and Rhizobia via pyruvate acetal-containing glucosyl and galactosyl donors 7 and 10.
    Additional Material: 5 Tab.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Carbohydrates ; Furanoses, 3,6-anhydro ; Glycosides, pyruvylated ; Anhydrofuranoses ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Treatment of methyl 2,3-di-O-acyl-D-glycopyranosides 1 of glucose and mannose with catalytic amounts of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid afforded the corresponding bis(5-O-acyl-3,6-anhydro-D-glycofuranose) 1,2′:2,1′-dianhydrides 6 in 12-58% yield the structure of which was confirmed for the α-D-glucose derivative 6a by an X-ray analysis. In addition, in the presence of methyl pyruvate (2a) or methyl 2-acetoxy-acrylate (2b) various amounts of diastereomeric 3,6-anhydro-5-O-benzoyl-1,2-O-(1-methoxycarbonyl)ethylidene-α-D-glucofuranoses 5 and acylated methyl α-D-glucopyranosides 3 and 4, respectively, were formed.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0170-2041
    Keywords: Glycosyl halides ; Haloacetates ; Koenigs-Knorr reaction ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Chloroacetylation of alkyl glycopyranosides of β-D-galactose, β-D-glucose and α-D-mannose as well as of free D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose and D-xylose, using chloroacetic anhydride as acylating reagent, gave the corresponding fully chloroacetylated pyranose derivatives in excellent yields. From D-glucose, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-chloroacetyl-α-D-glucopyranose (9) was also obtained. Subsequent treatment of the fully chloroacetylated α-D-glycopyranoses 3, 8, 13 and 15 of galactose, glucose, mannose, and xylose, respectively, with HBr resulted in 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-chloroacetyl-α-D-galactopyranosyl bromide (4, 98%), -glucopyranosyl bromide (10, 92%), -mannopyranosyl bromide (14, 72%) and 2,3,4-tri-O-chloroacetyl-α-D-xylopyranosyl bromide (16, 68%). 10 reacted with D-pantholactone (17) and silver trifluoromethanesulfonate under acidic conditions to give the corresponding α-linked (18, 45%) and β-linked (20, 38%) glucopyranosides. Under basic conditions the corresponding ortho ester product 21 was formed (92%) which upon treatment with BF3 gave the glucosides 18 and 20. Silver silicate as the catalyst gave only traces of 18. Thus, 20 was isolated in 80% yield. Reaction of 10 with silver crotonate and silver laurate gave 1-O-crotonoyl- (22) and 1-O-lauroyl-2,3,4,6-tetra-O-chloroacetyl-β-D-glucopyranose (24), respectively. 18 and 22 were dechloroacetylated with thiourea, affording the corresponding deblocked glucose derivatives 19 and 23, respectively.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Glycosides, pyruvated ; Sponge, marine ; Microciona prolifera ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Treatment of phenyl 2,3,6,2′,3′-penta-O-benzoyl-1-thio-β-D-lactoside (7) with BF3 in methyl pyruvate afforded the corresponding phenyl 4′,6′-O-[(R)-1-(methoxycarbonyl)ethylidene]-1-thio-β-D-lactoside (9) in 91% yield. The latter was converted via bromide 10 into the corresponding lactal 11 the azidonitration of which afforded an unseparable mixture of the „gluco“- and „manno“-configurated azido nitrates 12 (97%). As an alternative, benzyl O-(β-D-galactopyrnosyl)-(1→4)-2-azido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside (15) was prepared in two steps and 91% yield from the corresponding fully acetylated 2-azido-2-deoxylactosyl bromide 13 and was further modified in four steps to give the benzoylated benzyl 4′,6′-O-benzylidene-2-deoxy-2-[(2,2,2-trichloroethoxycarbonyl)amino]-α-D-lactoside 18 in 78% overall yield. The benzylidene acetal of the latter was cleaved to give the diol 19 the pyruvation of which as for compound 9 afforded the corresponding pyruvated lactosamine derivative 20 (81%). Hydrogenolysis of 20 followed by treatment with trichloroacetonitrile gave the corresponding pyruvated disaccharide trichloroacetimidate 22 (77%). Coupling of the latter with Z-protected 5-amino-1-pentanol followed by deblocking of the intermediates furnished 5-aminopentyl 2-acetamido-4′,6′-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethylidene]-2-deoxy-β-D-lactoside (2). Similarly, condensation of 22 with 5-[(benzyloxycarbonyl)amino]-pentyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-β-L-fucopyranoside (25) followed by deblocking of the intermediate trisaccharide afforded 5-aminopentyl O-{4,6-O-[(R)-1-carboxyethylidene]-β-D-galactopyranosyl}-(1→4)-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-glucopyranoside-(1→3)-β-L-fucopyranoside (3). Saccharides 2 and 3, represent fragments of the Microciona prolifera aggregation factor.
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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