Life and Medical Sciences
Cell & Developmental Biology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Alkaline phosphatase is induced in cultured human choriocarcinoma cells by three inhibitors of DNA synthesis which alter DNA structure: 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine, mitomycin C, and phleomycin. No induction is observed with the inhibitors, hydroxyurea and thymidine, which do not alter DNA structure. Cyclic AMP, analogs of cyclic nucleotides, and sodium butyrate also induce alkaline phosphatase in these cells. Among the cyclic nucleotides tested, dibutyryl cyclic AMP is the best inducer, whereas dibutyryl cyclic GMP is a poor inducer.Induction of alkaline phosphatase by inhibitors of DNA synthesis or by exposure to dibutyryl cyclic AMP appears to utilize different mechanisms. Maximum induction is observed after simultaneous addition of both types of inducers at the concentrations found to be optimal for each inducer alone. Under these conditions, the induced activity is equal to or greater than the sum of the activities induced by each inducer. RNA synthesis and protein synthesis are required for induction.Dibutyryl cyclic AMP added to cultures of choriocarcinoma cells is not degraded in the culture medium, but is extensively degraded in the cells. Nevertheless, significant amounts of dibutyryl and monobutyryl cyclic AMP are found intracellularly throughout the experiment. Since the cellular uptake of dibutyryl cyclic AMP is extremely slow, the amount of butyrate released by intracellular degradation cannot account for the observed induction. Neither the rate of uptake nor the stability of dibutyryl cyclic AMP are changed by the addition of 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine to the culture medium. Furthermore, 1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-cytosine inhibits the induction by sodium butyrate. The results indicate that butyrate is not the major mediator of induction by dibutyryl cyclic AMP.
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