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  • 1
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Measurement of metastable ion abundances over a dynamic range of 105 is possible with a specially designed mass spectrometer.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0739-4462
    Keywords: polydnavirus ; hemolymph ; soybean looper ; braconid ; parasite ; wasp ; Lepidoptera ; Chemistry ; Food Science, Agricultural, Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The venom of Microplitis demolitor consists of a mixture of proteins. On native PAGE gels three major proteins designated a, b, and g were detected, while on SDS-PAGE gels two major proteins of Mr 64.5 and 30.8 kD and several minor proteins were detected. No proteins smaller than Mr 30.8 kD were present. Murine monoclonal antibodies were generated against different venom components. Analysis by Western blot of venom proteins separated on native and SDS-PAGE gels confirmed that antibodies from seven hybridoma lines recognized venom components. Two of the seven hybridoma lines reacted specifically with protein g on native PAGE gels and the Mr 30.8 k protein on SDS-PAGE gels, while four other lines cross-reacted with these and other venom proteins. The final hybridoma line reacted with protein a when venom was separated on native PAGE gels and an array of proteins when venom was separated on SDS-PAGE gels. Using an enzyme-immunoassay and specific monoclonal antibodies, M. demolitor females were estimated to inject 0.02 - 0.05 venom gland reservoir equivalents into its host, Pseudoplusia includens, at oviposition. Venom proteins persisted in host hemolymph for 6 - 12 h before dropping to undetectable levels. © 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0449-2986
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0030-4921
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The 13C NMR spectra of tricyclo[4.2.1.02,5]nonanes and tetracyclo[5.4.1.02,6.08,11]dodecanes and their dimethyl derivatives were measured to demonstrate the four-membered ring annelation effects on the bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane skeleton, and the steric δ-syn effects of the methyl groups attached to the four-membered ring on the bridge carbons in these systems.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: We developed a new titanium spray technique using an inert gas shielded arc spray (titanium arc spray). Hydroxyapatite (HA)-coating can be applied to the implant without any surface pore obstruction after the rough surface is made by this technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of various porous implant surfaces after HA-coating revealed that the bead and fiber metal-coated implants had either a pore obstruction or an uneven HA-coating. On the other hand, the titanium arc sprayed implant demonstrated an even HA-coating all the way to the bottom of the surface pore. In the first set of animal experiments (Exp. 1), the interfacial shear strength to bone of four kinds of cylindrical Ti-6A1-4V (Ti) implants were compared using a canine transcortical push-out model 4 and 12 weeks after implantation. The implant surfaces were roughened by titanium arc spray (group A-C) and sand blasting (group D) to four different degrees (roughness average, Ra = group A: 56.1, B: 44.9, C: 28.3, D: 3.7 μm). The interfacial shear strength increased in a surface roughness-dependent manner at both time periods. However, the roughest implants (group A) showed some failed regions in the sprayed layers after push-out test. In the second set of animal experiments (Exp. 2), four kinds of Ti implants; HA-coated smooth Ti (sHA) with Ra of 3.4 μm, bead-coated Ti (Beads), titanium arc sprayed Ti (Ti-spray) with Ra of 38.1 μm and HA-coated Ti-spray (HA + Ti-spray) with Ra of 28.3 μm were compared using the same model as that in Exp. 1. The interfacial shear strength of HA + Ti-spray was significantly greater than that of sHA and Beads at both time periods, and that of Ti-spray at 4 weeks. Although a histological examination revealed that HA-coating enhanced bone ingrowth, sHA showed the lowest shear strength at both time periods. SEM after pushout test showed that sHA consistently demonstrated some regional failure at the HA-implant substrate interface. HA + Ti-spray had many failed regions either at the HA-bone interface or within the bone tissue rather than at the HA-implant substrate interface. These results suggested that the HA-coated smooth surfaced implants had a mechanical weakness at the HA-substrate interface. Therefore, HA should be coated on the rough surfaced implants to avoid a detachment of the HA-coating layer from the substrate and thus obtain a mechanical anchoring strength to bone. HA-coating on this new type of surface morphology may thus lead to a solution to the problems of conventional HA-coated and porous-coated implants. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: TGFβ1 from porcine platelets increased alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in the rat osteoblastic cell line ROS 17/2.8 about three-fold. This effect was dose-dependent with an ED50 of about ∼0.2 ng/ml and was larger during logarithmic growth than at confluence. TGFβ1 inhibited cell growth by about 30% with similar dose dependence. Thirty min exposure to TGFβ1 was sufficient to increase AP activity 3 days later by about two-fold but did not affect cell growth, suggesting dissociation between effects on proliferation and differentiation. The rise in AP activity started 6 h after TGFβ1 addition and was blocked by cycloheximide and actinomycin D. TGFβ1 also increased AP mRNA by two- to three-fold and this effect was not blocked by cycloheximide. The half-life of AP mRNA, estimated following the addition of 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole was about ten h in both control and TGFβ1-treated cells. The mRNAs for type I procollagen and osteonectin were also increased by TGFβ1 but fibronectin mRNA was decreased. TGFβ2 effects on AP and cell growth were similar to those of TGFβ1, except for lack of activity following transient exposure. At saturating concentrations, TGFβ2 (2 ng/ml) or dexamethasone (10-7M), which has similar effects on these cells, did not further augment the effects of TGFβ1 (at 2 ng/ml). Above findings suggest that TGFβ promotes osteoblatic differentiation in rat osteosarcoma cells at least in part by acting at the pretranslational level.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We have examined the effects of in vitro aging on the growth capacity of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under the influence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) with or without interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The growth and colony-forming abilities of control cells were impaired with advancing age in vitro, especially at later stages (more than 70-80% of life span completed). It was found that treatment with TNF inhibited growth and colony-forming efficiency at any in vitro age. The effects of TNF were shown to increase with increasing in vitro age, as reflected by a more pronounced increase in doubling times, a decrease in saturation density, and a reduction in colony-forming efficiency. However, the characteristics of TNF receptors, including the dissociation constant, and the number of TNF-binding sites per cell-surface area remained rather constant. The effect of TNF was augmented by IFN-γ at a dose that alone affected growth and colony formation only slightly. The augmentation by IFN-γ was also found to depend on in vitro age; the synergy with TNF in the deterioration of colony-forming ability was observed only in “aged” cells. These results suggest that the intrinsic responsiveness of HUVECs to growth-inhibiting factors, as well as to growth-stimulating factors, changes during aging in vitro.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York : Wiley-Blackwell
    Die Makromolekulare Chemie 73 (1964), S. 215-224 
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Die Synthese und die Eigenschaften von Poly-N-methacrylylcystein wurden untersucht. Poly-N-methacrylylcystein wurde aus S-Thiophenyl-N-methacrylylcystein, S-Benzyl-N-methacrylylcystein oder N,N′-Bis-methacrylylcystin durch Polymerisation in Gegenwart eines Radikalkatalysators und nachfolgende Reduktion der betreffenden Polymeren dargestellt. Auch Copolymere aus N-Methacrylylcystein und Vinylverbindungen wurden synthetisiert. Diese Polymeren gaben durch die Oxydation mit Jod Polymere mit Disulfidvernetzung und reagierten mit Halogenverbindungen oder einigen Disulfidverbindungen; sie reagierten wie niedermolekulare Merkaptane auch mit Metallionen und Carbonylverbindungen.
    Notes: The synthesis and the properties of poly-N-methacrylyl cysteine have been studied. Poly-N-methacrylyl cysteine was prepared from S-thiophenyl-N-methacrylyl cysteine, S-benzyl-N-methacrylyl cysteine or N,N′-bisymethacrylyl cystine, by polymerizing them in the presence of a radical catalyst and reducing the respective polymers formed. Copolymers of N-methacrylyl cysteine and vinyl compounds were also synthesized. These polymers were converted by the oxidation with iodine to polymers with disulfide crosslinking and reacted with halogen compounds or some disulfide compounds. They reacted, like low molecular mercaptans, also with metallic ions and carbonyl compounds.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Two flat cellular revertant cell lines, F-2 and C-11, which were originally selected from the DT line of Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (Ki-MuSV)-transformed NIH/3T3 cells, were examined for the production of transforming growth factors (TGFs). The revertant cells fail to grow in semisolid medium as colonies and exhibit a markedly reduced level of tumorigenicity in nude mice, although they are known to express high levels of p21ras, the product of the Kirsten sarcoma virus oncogene, ras, and they contain a rescuable transforming virus. TGF activity associated with the transformed, revertant, and non-transformed cell lines was measured by the ability of concentrated conditioned medium (CM) from these cells to induce normal rat kidney (NRK) and NIH/3T3 cells to form colonies in semisolid agar suspension cultures and to inhibit the binding of 125I epidermal growth factor (EGF) to specific cell surface receptors. CM from the transformed DT cells and from both the F-2 and C-11 revertants contains TGF activity, in contrast to CM obtained from normal NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, unlike NIH/3T3 cells, neither the DT nor the revertant cells were able to bind 125I EGF. All four cell lines were able to proliferate in serum-free medium supplemented with transferrin, insulin, EGF, and Pedersen fetuin. However, in basal medium lacking these growth factors, only DT cells and, to a lesser extent, the revertant cells were able to grow. These results suggest that the F-2 and C-11 revertants fail to exhibit all of the properties associated with transformation because the series of events leading to the transformed phenotype is blocked at a point(s) distal both to the expression of the p21 ras gene product and also to the production of TGFs and that the production of TGFs may be necessary but not sufficient for maintaining the transformed state.
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