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  • 1
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: N-Substituted 3-amino-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylates have been evaluated as adhesives for calcium metaphosphate crystalline glass-ceramic, a potential esthetic dental restoration material. Although the adhesion to the ceramic was found to be much more difficult and dependent on the kinds of substituents than that of tooth enamel, monomers having a carboxyl group showed specifically high adhesive tensile strength. The strength tended to decrease as the hydrophobicity and molecular bulkiness increased. Surface treatment of the ceramic, especially with sodium hydroxide, proved effective in terms of both strength and durability for the carboxyl-containing monomers. Scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the importance of surface irregularity due to the alkaline treatment.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: In order to shed light on the relationship of monomer structure and adhesiveness to tooth enamel, methacrylamides having various substituents were synthesized and evaluated as dental adhesives. Among 17 methacrylamides synthesized here, those having N-m- and N-p-carbethoxyphenyl, N-p-fluorophenyl, and N-3-carboxycyclohexyl groups showed adhesive tensile strength of more than 100 kg/cm2 with minimal drops in strength on standing, indicating high potentials as novel adhesives. It was also confirmed that a carboxyl group enhances adhesive tensile strength peculiarly regardless of skeletal structures.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cytological changes following transection of the proximal root of the trigeminal ganglion in adult rats were assessed by light and electron microscopy. Radices were transected about 3-5 mm from the ganglia and animals were killed from 1 to 60 days after the operation. Light microscopically, it was found that all Nissl granules became uniformly stained and evenly distributed throughout the cytoplasm within 3 days. Three types of cell alteration involving Nissl granules occurred within 3 to 12 days after the operation: (1) chromatolysis, (2) dark staining of the cytoplasm accompanied by an increase of Nissl granules, and (3) faint staining of the cytoplasm accompanied by dispersion of Nissl granules. Electron microscopically, the chromatolysis pattern was characterized by peripheral concentration of the granular endoplasmic reticulum (gER) and ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Neurons of the darkstaining type showed an increased number of polysomal complexes throughout the cytoplasm, whereas those of the faint-staining type had diffusely dispersed cisternae of the gER which were shortened and bore reduced numbers of attached ribosomes. Perinuclear localization of profiles of Golgi complexes disappeared temporarily 1-3 days after the operation, but the normal perinuclear pattern appeared to return after 1 week. Enzyme histochemistry of acid phosphatase activity revealed an increase in the number of very fine reaction products in the cytoplasm up to 14 days following the operation. Cells recovered the normal pattern of Nissl staining by 48 days. Myelin figures, which are rarely observed in normal ganglia, were still observed in dense lysosomal bodies after 30 days. Nuclear size in affected neurons steadily increased up to about 2 weeks postoperation but returned to normal by 48 days.
    Additional Material: 14 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Morphology 175 (1983), S. 101-113 
    ISSN: 0362-2525
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The neurons of the trigeminal ganglia of the rat and chicken were characterized by means of light microscopic, electron microscopic, and histochemical methods. Light microscopy disclosed four types of neurons, based on the characteristics of Nissl granules: (1) large neurons with diffusely distributed and very fine granules, (2) neurons containing coarse and sparsely distributed Nissl granules, (3) neurons containing dense Nissl granules of varying size, and (4) small neurons with granules concentrated peripherally. Electron microscopy allowed further definition of these four types of neurons by the length and arrangement of flattened cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum (gER) and the number of neurofilaments. Type 1 cells were largest, with a mean nuclear area of 139.8 ± 28.3 μm2. Type 4 cells were smallest, with a mean nuclear area of 74.6 ± 20.9 μm2. The mean nuclear areas of type 2 and 3 cells were intermediate to those of the type 1 and 4 cells. Type 3 and 4 neurons lacked neurofilaments. Four forms of Golgi apparatus were found: (1) large bent grains forming a network throughout the soma, (2) dispersed fine granular deposits, (3) fine or small granules, and (4) coarse bent deposits arranged confluently in the perinuclear zone. In some rat neurons, the concentration of acid phosphatase reaction products suggested a high enzymatic activity, whereas the chicken ganglion cells showed no such concentration. These findings are discussed and compared with the classifications of previous studies.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: We compared the ability of human leukemia cell lines of various origins to grow in glutamine-deficient media. The growth of B lymphoblastoid cell lines, including promyelocytic HL-60, is highly dependent on glutamine, whereas T-cell lines are able to proliferate in glutamine-free media. Such glutamine dependency has a good inverse correlation with the activity of glutamine synthetase. Moreover, glutamine synthetase can be induced in glutamine-deficient media, especially in glutamine-independent cells. In HL-60 cells, glutamine deprivation results in the decrease of both ATP and dATP levels. The addition of adenine to the culture medium abolishes these changes without restoring cell growth, indicating that the effects of glutamine deprivation on cell growth cannot be fully explained by the perturbation of adenine nucleotide pools.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Twelve methacrylamide derivatives containing carboxyl and phenyl groups have been evaluated as adhesives for calcium metaphosphate ceramic, a promising but hard-to-adhere cast ceramic restoration material. Although methacrylamide monomers having a carboxyl group showed low adhesive tensile strength for the ceramic, contrary to the glycidyl methacrylate derivatives, the monomer having neighboring two carboxyl groups at the phenyl ring exhibited quite high adhesion. Moreover, the monomer proved to retain high adhesion strength for the surface-etched ceramic for a long period of time even in water and would thus be suitable for practical clinical applications. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Influence of surface treatment of calcium metaphosphate ceramic was analyzed in detail to achieve high adhesion in an aqueous environment with N-(vinylbenzyl)iminodiacetic acid as a novel dental adhesive monomer. The adhesion strength was enhanced greatly by alkali etching of the ceramic surface, although the adhesion profile varied with etching conditions. Scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and roughness evaluation indicated that high adhesion was closely associated with the formation of fine irregularity on the surface that was rich in Ca. N-(Vinylbenzyl)iminodiacetic acid was thus confirmed to be a suitable adhesive monomer for the ceramic in dentistry in terms of strength and durability when the ceramic surface was properly etched. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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