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  • 1
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; Cyclodextrin derivatives ; Monoterpene hydrocarbons ; Essential oils ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Using a dual column gas chromatograph equipped with two capillary columns coated with heptakis(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin (6-me-2,3-pe-β-CD) and octakis(6-O-methyl-2,3-di-O-pentyl)-γ-cyclodextrin (6-me-2,3-pe-γ-CD), respectively, all important olefinic monoterpene hydrocarbons occurring in essential oils, including α-thujene, α- and β-pinene, camphene, sabinene, α- and β-phellandrene, Δ-3-carene and limonene can be resolved into enantiomers. With the chromatographic system described the characteristic enantiomeric composition of these monoterpene hydrocarbons in essential oils can be determined.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Resolution of atropisomers ; Alkylated biphenyls ; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ; Dynamic gas chromatography ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Selectively alkylated cyclodextrins have been used to resolve the enantiomers of 2,2′ alkylated biphenyls. The configurational stability of 2,2′-dimethyl and 2,2′-diethyl biphenyls is insufficient for gas chromatographic separation even at ambient temperature. 2-Isopropyl-2′-t-butyl- and 2,2′-di-t-butylbiphenyl are configurationally stable under the conditions applied, whereas 2,2′-diisopropyl- and 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl show temperature-dependent interconversion of the enantiomers during chromatography. The gas chromatographic separation of the enantiomers of some ortho trichlorinated biphenyls carrying 4, 5, and 6 chlorine substituents has been demonstrated for the first time.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective GC of chlorinated bis(propyl) ethers ; environmental analysis ; contamination of the Elbe River ; cyclodextrin derivatives ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Cyclodextrin derivatives are evaluated as chiral stationary phases for the enantiomer separation of chlorinated bis(propyl) ethers (BPE). The enantiomeric composition of the 2,3,2′,3′- and 1,3,2′,3′-isomers of tetrachlorobis(propyl) ether in the Elbe River has been quantitatively determined by enantioselective gas chromatography and coupled gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected-ion-monitoring mode. Significant enantiomeric discriminations are observed in selected water samples, indicating that enantioselective bio-degradation mechanisms are at least partly responsible for the overall degradation processes.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; Cyclodextrin derivatives ; Terpenoid hydrocarbons ; Chiral carbonyl compounds ; Flavor alcohols ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Modified cyclodextrins interact enantioselectively with a great variety of volatile chiral constituents of essential oils by forming diastereomeric inclusion complexes. Capillary gas chromatography is used for resolving the enantiomers of terpenoid hydrocarbons (camphene, α-pinene, limonene, α-phellandrene), carbonyl compounds (carvone, fenchone, menthone, isomenthone, piperitone, camphor, myrtenal), and alcohols (trifluoroacetylated β-citronellol, myrtenol, trans-pinocarveol, 1-octen-3-ol, and underivatized linalool). The enantiomeric composition of some of these compounds in a variety of essential oils is investigated.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; 2,6-di-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl-β- and y-cyclodextrins ; α and β hydroxy acids ; Branched carboxylic acids ; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ; Abscisic Acid ; Epoxides ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The wide range of application of 2,6-di-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl-β-and y-cyclodextrins is demonstrated by the resolution of the enantiomers of the methyl esters of chiral carboxylic acids: α and β hydroxy acids with up to 18 carbon atoms, hydroxy di- and tricarboxylic acids, and alkyl/aryl-substituted carboxylic acid methyl esters, including the plant hormone abscisic acid, insect juvenile hormones, and some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can be resolved with generally large separation factors. The new cyclodextrin derivatives also exhibit high selectivity for epoxides.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective GC ; Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons ; Cyclodextrin derivatives ; Essential oils ; Liverworts ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A number of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons commonly occurring in essential oils has been prepared as racemic mixtures by chemical synthesis. Preparative gas chromatography with selectively per-O-alkylated cyclodextrins has been employed for the isolation of enantiomeric mixtures or pure enantiomers from the essential oils of higher plants and liverworts (Hepaticae). The enantiomers of α-curcumene, α- and β-bisabolene, β-elemene, δ-elemene, α-copaene, δ-cadinene, cis- and trans-calamenene, and bicyclogermacrene could be resolved by enantioselective gas chromatography on capillary columns coated with cyclodextrin derivatives. The enantiomeric composition of these sesquiterpene hydrocarbons in various essential oils was determined.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Enantioselective gas chromatography ; Enantioselective supercritical fluid chromatography ; Immobilized chiral stationary phases ; Modified cyclodextrin ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl) (2-O-methyl-6-O-oct-1-enyl-3-O-pentyl)-γ-cyclodextrin was immobilized to narrow-bore fused silica capillaries after selective modification. One tert-butyldimethylsilyl group was introduced into octakis-(2-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl)-γ-cyclodextrin in order to get a pure monofunctionalized cyclodextrin derivative. During synthesis the tert-butyldimethylsilyl group was replaced by an anchoring group to bind the cyclodextrin to a polysiloxane. After thermal immobilization of the modified polysiloxane this new chiral stationary phase was applied in GC and SFC. High efficiency separations were obtained in GC. In SFC very polar compounds could be chromatographed at low temperatures resulting in higher separation factors as compared to GC.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Monofunctionalized cyclodextrins ; enantioselective capillary-HPLC ; immobilized chiral stationary phases ; separation of chiral drugs ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: ---Heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl-3-O-pentyl)-β-cyclodextrin was monofunctionalized by the regioselective introduction of exactly one ω-epoxyoctyl group at the primary site of the cyclodextrin. The site-specifically substituted cyclodextrin was immobilized to commercially available aminopropyl silica by nucleophilic opening of the epoxy function of the spacer substituent resulting in a lipophilic chiral stationary phase with broad applicability for enantiomer separations in capillary-HPLC under reversed-phase conditions.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0947-3440
    Keywords: Atropisomers ; Biphenyls, axially chiral ; Enantiomerization ; Dynamic gas chromatography ; Polarimetry ; Energy barriers ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: We have synthesized a series of 2,2′-substituted biphenyls and particularly derivatives of 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl (4) with either one or two fluoro, chloro, bromo, amino, nitro or methoxy substituents in the para positions for investigating the influence of these substituents on the rotational energy barrier of the biphenyls by polarimetry and dynamic gas chromatography (DGC). Axially chiral biphenyls with at least two bulky substituents in the ortho positions were separated by gas chromatography on selectively modified cyclodextrins. Due to competition between resolution and enantiomerization in the gas chromatographic column 2-tert-butyl-2′-isopropyl- (2), 2-isopropyl-2′-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl (5), and some para-substituted derivatives of 4 show temperature-dependent interconversion profiles and coalescence phenomena in analogy to dynamic NMR studies. The accelerating effect on the rate of enantiomerization of electron-donating groups in the para positions and the decelerating effect of electron-accepting groups has been determined. Dynamic gas chromatography is shown to be a useful supplement to studies of thermal enantiomerization kinetics of optically enriched or separated compounds by polarimetry for the investigation of energy barriers of atropisomeric biphenyls.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1040-7685
    Keywords: basic drugs ; capillary electrophoresis ; cyclodextrin derivatives ; separation of enantiomers ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The influence of seven differently methylated β-cyclodextrin derivatives and of pure β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) on the enantiomeric resolution by capillary electrophoresis of six basic chiral pharmaceuticals is investigated. The methyl substitution pattern affects enantioselectivity much more than other experimental parameters. The purity of the used cyclodextrin derivatives is analyzed by successive hydrolysis, reduction, acetylation, and GC/MS of each CD derivative and by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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