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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (23,895)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1059-910X
    Keywords: STEM ; PEELS ; HAADFI ; Nanolithography ; Super-resolution ; STM ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Notes: The Microstructural Physics group at the Cavendish Laboratory is actively involved in a considerable number of research projects which cover a broad range of materials science. In this paper, we describe briefly several such projects, with particular emphasis given to the application of parallel-detection electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS) on a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) to the analysis of materials such as stainless steels, catalysts, and high temperature superconductors. In addition, we describe a number of related projects that are currently being carried out in the group, particularly those which utilise and develop novel STEM imaging and analytical techniques. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 19 Ill.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Populations of fishes provide valuable services for billions of people, but face diverse and interacting threats that jeopardize their sustainability. Human population growth and intensifying resource use for food, water, energy and goods are compromising fish populations through a variety of mechanisms, including overfishing, habitat degradation and declines in water quality. The important challenges raised by these issues have been recognized and have led to considerable advances over past decades in managing and mitigating threats to fishes worldwide. In this review, we identify the major threats faced by fish populations alongside recent advances that are helping to address these issues. There are very significant efforts worldwide directed towards ensuring a sustainable future for the world's fishes and fisheries and those who rely on them. Although considerable challenges remain, by drawing attention to successful mitigation of threats to fish and fisheries we hope to provide the encouragement and direction that will allow these challenges to be overcome in the future.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The effect of surface roughness on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and protein synthesis was examined. Human osteoblast-like cells (MG63) were cultured on titanium (Ti) disks that had been prepared by one of five different treatment regimens. All disks were pretreated with hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid and washed (PT). PT disks were also: washed, and then electropolished (EP); fine sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (FA); coarse sandblasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (CA); or Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control. Surface topography and profile were evaluated by brightfield and darkfield microscopy, cold field emission scanning electron microscopy, and laser confocal microscopy, while chemical composition was mapped using energy dispersion X-ray analysis and elemental distribution determined using Auger electron spectroscopy. The effect of surface roughness on the cells was evaluated by measuring cell number, [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA, alkaline phosphatase specific activity, [3H]uridine incorporation into RNA, [3H]proline incorporation into collagenase digestible protein (CDP) and noncollagenase-digestible protein (NCP), and [35S]sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan.Based on surface analysis, the five different Ti surfaces were ranked in order of smoothest to roughest: EP, PT, FA, CA, and TPS. A TiO2 layer was found on all surfaces that ranged in thickness from 100 Å in the smoothest group to 300 Å in the roughest. When compared to confluent cultures of cells on plastic, the number of cells was reduced on the TPS surfaces and increased on the EP surfaces, while the number of cells on the other surfaces was equivalent to plastic. [3H]Thymidine incorporation was inversely related to surface roughness. Alkaline phosphatase specific activity in isolated cells was found to decrease with increasing surface roughness, except for those cells cultured on CA. In contrast, enzyme activity in the cell layer was only decreased in cultures grown on FA- and TPS-treated surfaces. A direct correlation between surface roughness and RNA and CDP production was found. Surface roughness had no apparent effect on NCP production. Proteoglycan synthesis by the cells was inhibited on all the surfaces studied, with the largest inhibition observed in the CA and EP groups. These results demonstrate that surface roughness alters osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production in vitro. The results also suggest that implant surface roughness may play a role in determining phenotypic expression of cells in vivo.
    Additional Material: 10 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0933-5137
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Random copolymers of ethylene with 1-butene, 1-octene, and 1-octadecene have been prepared using a homogeneous vanadium-based catalyst system. Comonomer contents determined by 13C-NMR analysis of polymer solutions are in the range 1-10 mol%. Crystallinities were estimated by means of density measurements, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, laser Raman spectroscopy, and CPMAS 13C-NMR spectroscopy. The results are compared with those obtained for heterogeneous copolymers of ethylene containing 1-4 mol% 1-butene. As the comonomer content is increased, the crystallinity decreases. The dimension perpendicular to the 110 plane in orthorhombic crystallites decreases linearly with crystallinity. This decrease in crystallite size is accompanied by an increase in the size of the orthorhombic unit cell. For copolymers containing large amounts of 1-octene and 1-octadecene, a second crystalline form appears. Differences in estimates of crystallinity are discussed in terms of looser packing in highly branched copolymers and the extent to which the second crystalline form participates in the phase structure.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: A method for the quantitative determination of chlorpromazine and five of its major metabolites in a single sample of biological fluid in the ng/ml range has been developed utilizing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with selected ion recording. The assay is highly specific and quantification is accomplished by an inverse stable isotope dilution technique, using deuterium-labeled variants of the compounds as internal standards. In this way the concentrations of chlorpromazine and five of its major metabolites (the sulfoxide, the N-oxide, the monodemethylated, the didemethylated, and the 7-hydroxylated compounds) can be determined in biological fluids. Levels in humans have been measured both in plasma and in red blood cells and are compared to those found in related in vitro studies.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1075-4261
    Keywords: cholelithiasis ; gallstone ; bile salts ; periodic precipitation ; fractal precipitation ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: This is the first observation that both chaotic and periodic patterns are formed in metal ions-deoxycholate-gel systems. It is an in vitro model for approximating the conditions present during gallstone formation. The experimental results suggest that a nonlinear scientific concept such as the “butterfly effect” should be considered in understanding gallstone formation. This effect suggests that a butterfly flapping its wings in Beijing today may lead to a thunderstorm in New York months later. Applying this concept to biology, minor changes in the local chemical environment within biological systems may lead to large variations in the structure and morphology of gallstone through changes in the behavior of biological mineralization process. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biospect 3: 195-205, 1997
    Additional Material: 13 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Titanium (Ti) surface roughness affects proliferation, differentiation, and matrix production of MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. Cytokines and growth factors produced in the milieu surrounding an implant may also be influenced by its surface, thereby modulating the healing process. This study examined the effect of surface roughness on the production of two factors known to have potent effects on bone, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). MG-63 cells were cultured on Ti disks of varying roughness. The surfaces were ranked from smoothest to roughest: electropolished (EP), pretreated with hydrofluoric acid-nitric acid (PT), fine sand-blasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (EA), coarse sand-blasted, etched with HCl and H2SO4, and washed (CA), and Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Cells were cultured in 24-well polystyrene (plastic) dishes as controls and to determine when confluence was achieved. Media were collected and cell number determined 24 h postconfluence. PGE2 and TGF-β1 levels in the conditioned media were determined using commercial radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, respectively. There was an inverse relationship between cell number and Ti surface roughness. Total PGE2 content in the media of cultures grown on the three roughest surfaces (FA, CA, and TPS) was significantly increased 1.5-4.0 times over that found in media of cultures grown on plastic or smooth surfaces. When PGE2 production was expressed per cell number, CA and TPS cultures exhibited six- to eightfold increases compared to cultures on plastic and smooth surfaces. There was a direct relationship between TGF-β1 production and surface roughness, both in terms of total TGF-β1 per culture and when normalized for cell number. TGF-β1 production on rough surfaces (CA and TPS) was three to five times higher than on plastic. These studies indicate that substrate surface roughness affects cytokine and growth factor production by MG-63 cells, suggesting that surface roughness may modulate the activity of cells interacting with an implant, and thereby affect tissue healing and implant success. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Although it is well accepted that implant success is dependent on various surface properties, little is known about the effect of surface roughness on cell metabolism or differentiation, or whether the effects vary with the maturational state of the cells interacting with the implant. In the current study, we examined the effect of titanium (Ti) surface roughness on chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix synthesis using cells derived from known stages of endochondral development. Chondrocytes derived from the resting zone (RCs) and growth zone (GCs) of rat costochondral cartilage were cultured on Ti disks that were prepared as follows: HF-HNO3-treated and washed (PT); PT-treated and electropolished (EP); fine sand-blasted, HCl-H2SO4-etched, and washed (FA); coarse sand-blasted, HCl-H2SO4-etched, and washed (CA); or Ti plasma-sprayed (TPS). Based on surface analysis, the Ti surfaces were ranked from smoothest to roughest: EP, PT, FA, CA, and TPS. Cell proliferation was assessed by cell number and [3H]-thymidine incorporation, and RNA synthesis was assessed by [3H]-uridine incorporation. Differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase specific activity (AL-Pase). Matrix production was measured by [3H]-proline incorporation into collagenase-digestible (CDP) and noncollagenase-digestible (NCP) protein and by [35S]-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan. GCs required two trypsinizations for complete removal from the culture disks; the number of cells released by the first trypsinization was generally decreased with increasing surface roughness while that released by the second trypsinization was increased. In RC cultures, cell number was similarly decreased on the rougher surfaces; only minimal numbers of RCs were released by a second trypsinization. [3H]-thymidine incorporation by RCs decreased with increasing surface roughness while that by GCs was increased. [3H]-Uridine incorporation by both GCs and RCs was greater on rough surfaces. Conversely, ALPase in the cell layer and isolated cells of both cell types was significantly decreased. GC CDP and NCP production was significantly decreased on rough surfaces while CDP production by RC cells was significantly decreased on smooth surfaces. [35S]-sulfate incorporation by RCs and GCs was decreased on all surfaces compared to tissue culture plastic. The results of this study indicate that surface roughness affects chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and matrix synthesis, and that this regulation is cell maturation dependent. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: implant ; titanium ; osteoblasts ; prostaglandin ; indomethacin ; surface roughness ; 1α,25-(OH)2D3 ; differentiation ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Surface roughness affects proliferation, differentiation (alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin), local factor production [transforming growth factor (TGFβ) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)], and response to 1,25-(OH)2D3 (1,25) of MG63 osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we examined whether the effect of surface roughness on MG63 cells is mediated by prostaglandins produced by the cells. Unalloyed titanium (Ti) disks were pretreated with HF/HNO3 (PT) and then machined and acid-etched (MA). Disks were also coarse grit-sandblasted (SB), coarse grit-sandblasted and acid-etched (CA), or plasma-sprayed with Ti particles (PS). The surfaces, from smoothest to roughest, were PT, MA, CA, SB, and PS. MG63 cells were cultured to confluence on the Ti disks in the presence or absence of 10-7M indomethacin (Indo), a specific inhibitor of cyclooxygenase activity, resulting in decreased prostaglandin production. When the cells reached confluence, cell number, cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPase), and osteocalcin (OC) and latent TGFβ (LTGFβ) production were determined. In addition, confluent cultures which had been grown in the absence of Indo were exposed to 10-7M 1,25, 10-7M Indo, or a combination of the two for 24 h. On the rougher surfaces, cell number was decreased and ALPase, OC, and LTGFβ were increased. When indomethacin was present throughout the culture period, the effect of surface roughness on cell number, OC, and LTGFβ was abolished. ALPase was reduced, but surface roughness-dependent effects were still observed. Addition of indomethacin to confluent cultures for 24 h had no effect on any of the parameters examined, with one exception: Cells cultured on MA surfaces exhibited a more differentiated phenotype. 1,25 increased all parameters examined on SB, CA, and PS surfaces. When indomethacin was added with 1,25, the 1,25-dependent effects on cell number and OC and LTGFβ production were abolished; however, ALPase was unaffected. This indicates that bone cell response to systemic hormones may be modified by implant surface roughness. This effect may be mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins produced by the same cells. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res, 41, 489-496, 1998.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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