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  • Chemistry  (44)
  • Life and Medical Sciences  (13)
  • Fundamental concepts
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  • Wiley-Blackwell  (57)
  • 1
    ISSN: 0887-6134
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry is, for the first time, successfully applied to the underivatized anthracycline antibiotics retamycins E1 and E2, using bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)sulphide as the matrix compound. The spectra are characterized by abundant protonated molecular ions and also by a number of sequence ions, which can be easily rationalized in terms of the carbohydrate sequence in the molecules. The relative abundance of these ions seems to depend on the functionalities close to the glycosidic oxygen, and also on their stereochemical relationship. Structural results are also confirmed by the analysis of the FAB mass spectra of the acetyl derivatives.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0935-9648
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0951-4198
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A new research apparatus for characterization of low-pressure premixed flames has been developed. This instrument incorporates several spectral techniques in one apparatus so that various diagnostic techniques can be quantitatively compared and the usable detection range expanded. Features include detection by mass analysis with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and by laser techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence. Temperature profiles of the flame both with and without the mass spectrometer probe were obtained by thermocople. Concentration profiles of the highly reactive flame species H·, O, and OH· were obtained and compared.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0887-624X
    Keywords: 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid monoesters ; poly(amide-imide) structural regularity ; poly(amide-imide) “one-pot” synthesis ; 13C-NMR spectra of poly(amide-imide) ; phosphorylation reaction ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Aromatic processable poly(amide-imide)s have been prepared according to the Yamazaki and Higashi phosphorylation reaction from flexible aromatic diamines and a mixture of isomeric 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid monoethylesters following a novel “one-pot” procedure. The polymerization was performed in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/LiCl solutions using triphenylphosphite and pyridine as condensing agents to form amide bonds. Cyclization of the intermediate poly(amide-amic ethylester) occurred by eliminating ethanol under the polymerization conditions used, thus leading to the formation of imide rings. The influence of several parameters which regulate the degree of polymerization and the formation of the imide rings, such as reaction temperature, triphenylphosphite/monomers molar ratio, and pyridine concentration was carefully investigated. In particular, the catalytic activity of pyridine in the imidization reaction has been demonstrated. 13C-NMR spectroscopy has been used to show the absence of constitutional regularity in the prepared PAIs thus indicating equal reactivity toward polycondensation of the two different carboxyl groups of the 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid monoethylesters. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0899-0042
    Keywords: Circular dichroism ; helicity rule ; X-ray structure determination ; ultraviolet spectra ; n - π* and π - π* bands ; Chemistry ; Organic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Chiroptical properties of a series of 3 and/or 4-heterosubstituted 2(5H)-furanones were investigated with respect to correlation with absolute configuration. The n - π* and π - π* Cotton effects have been assigned on the basis of comparison with the UV spectra in solvents of varying polarity. It is demonstrated that the n - π* transition in 4-amino substituted 2(5H)-furanones appears at shorter wavelength with respect to the π - π* transition. With the exception of 4-pyrrolidino and 4-benzylamino substituted 2(5H)-furanones, other heterosubstituted 2(5H)-furanones follow the butenolide configurational rule (Gawronski et al. J. Org. Chem. 61:1513-1515, 1996). Absolute configuration of 2(5H)-furanone derivatives can also be assigned according to the sign of the Cotton effect (of unknown origin) at 200-230 nm. The structure of four representative sulfur and nitrogen substituted 2(5H)-furanones has been analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results indicate planarity of the furanone ring and extended conjugation in 4-amino substituted 2(5H)-furanones. Chirality 9:537-544, 1997. © 1997 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: AFT1 ; transcriptional factor ; iron uptake ; phosphorylation ; respiratory growth ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: High-affinity iron uptake in Saccharomyces cerevisiae involves the extracytoplasmic reduction of ferric ions by FRE1 and FRE2 reductases. Ferrous ions are then transported across the plasma membrane through the FET3 oxidase-FTR1 permease complex. Expression of the high-affinity iron uptake genes is induced upon iron deprivation. We demonstrate that AFT1 is differentially involved in such regulation. Aft1 protein is required for maintaining detectable non-induced levels of FET3 expression and for induction of FRE2 in iron starvation conditions. On the contrary, FRE1 mRNA induction is normal in the absence of Aft1, although the existence of AFT1 point mutations causing constitutive expression of FRE1 (Yamaguchi-Iwai et al., EMBO J. 14: 1231-1239, 1995) indicates that Aft1 may also participate in FRE1 expression in a dispensable way. The alterations in the basal levels of expression of the high-affinity iron uptake genes may explain why the AFT1 mutant is unable to grow on respirable carbon sources. Overexpression of AFT1 leads to growth arrest at the G1 stage of the cell cycle. Aft1 is a transcriptional activator that would be part of the different transcriptional complexes interacting with the promoter of the high-affinity iron uptake genes. Aft1 displays phosphorylation modifications depending on the growth stage of the cells, and it might link induction of genes for iron uptake to other metabolically dominant requirements for cell growth. © John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 7 (1991), S. 1-14 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; cell cycle ; budding ; spore germination ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Cloning and sequencing of RCS1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene whose product seems to be involved in timing the budding event of the cell cycle, is described. A haploid strain in which the 3′-terminal region of the chromosomal copy of the gene has been disrupted produces cells that are, on average, twice the size of cells of the parental strain. The critical size for budding in the mutant is similarly increased, and the disruption mutation is dominant in a diploid heterozygous for the RCS1 gene. Spores from this diploid have a reduced ability to germinate, the effect being more pronounced in the spores carrying the disrupted copy of RCS1. However, disrupted cells recover from α-factor treatment equally as well as wild-type cells.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 8 (1992), S. 107-115 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Yeast ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; glycolysis ; hexokinase ; phosphofructokinase ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The enzymatic steps involved in the inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxygalactose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been investigated. Yeast, incubated with 2-deoxygalactose, accumulates up to 8 mM-2-deoxygalactose, 30 mM-2-deoxygalactose-1-phosphate and 0·25 mM-UDP-2-deoxygalactose and UDP-2-dexyglucose. An inverse correlation between 2-deoxygalactose-1-phosphate content and rate of glycolysis has been observed. The intracellular concentration of glycolytic intermediates and related metabolites point to the hexokinase and phosphofructokinase steps as the targets for the inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxygalactose and rule out all other mechanisms that have been proposed to explain this inhibition.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Yeast 13 (1997), S. 541-549 
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: cytoskeleton ; endocytosis ; yeast maltose transporter ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Certain components of the cytoskeleton play a role in yeast fluid-phase endocytosis as well as in endocytosis of the α-factor when this pheromone is bound to its 7-transmembrane segment receptor. The yeast maltose transporter is a 12-transmembrane segment protein that, under certain physiological conditions, is degraded in the vacuole after internalization by endocytosis. In this work, the possible role of the cytoskeleton in endocytosis of this transporter has been investigated. Using mutants defective in β-tubulin, actin and the actin-binding proteins Sac6 and Abp85, as well as nocodazole, which inhibits formation of microtubules, we have shown that actin microfilaments are involved in endocytosis of the maltose transporter whereas microtubules are not.© 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2 ; translocation ; endoplasmic reticulum ; alg1 ; exoglucanase ; S. cerevisiae ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Transfer of truncated oligosaccharides to yeast exoglucanase (Exg) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae alg1 has been investigated. When incubated at the non-permissive temperature, alg1 cells secreted into the culture medium, in addition to the exoglucanase glycoforms secreted by wild type, underglycosylated forms as well as material with ionic properties of the non-glycosylated enzyme. As expected, none of the latter had affinity towards concanavalin A, but part of it bound to wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), suggesting that it contained, in addition to non-glycosylated Exg, glycoforms carrying non-reducing terminal GlcNAc. Only the WGA-bound material could be labelled with galactosyltransferase; furthermore, the label could be released by treatment with peptide-N4-N-acetyl-β-glucosamine asparagine amidase. These results unambiguously demonstrate that GlcNAc2 can be transferred from dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2 to one or both sequons of yeast Exg. Accordingly, they support previous observations suggesting that this early intermediate is able to translocate in vivo in order to make its sugar portion accessible to the oligosaccharyltransferase in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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