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  • 1
    ISSN: 0947-5117
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Influence of a mechanical treatment on the oxidation behaviour of ZrNb 3 Sn 1 alloy in oxygenIt has been found by means of gravimetric, microscopic, screen electron microscopic and x-ray diffraction investigations that the corrosion resistance of a Zr-Nb 3-Sn 1 alloy in oxygen (po2 = 3.3 × 104 Pa) between 400 and 460° C increases with increasing extent of cold rolling between 10 and 50%. Initially, the oxidation obeys a parabolic rate law with an activation energy the value of which becomes larger with increasing cold forming. After a critical thickness of the oxide layer is reached a transfer to a linear rate law occurs. The time of this transition becomes larger with increasing cold forming. Form the three processes which are responsible to the oxide layer growth mainly the diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer via oxygen ion vacancies is the rate-determining step. In the later period of oxidation, however, a diffusion via grain boundaries must also be considered. The manner of the oxide growth is decisively determined by the cold forming regarding to a preferred orientation of the α-Zr grains in the alloy and to an epitaxial formation of oxide nucleus and of oxide crystals in the later period of oxidation.
    Notes: Mittels gravimetrischer, lichtmikroskopischer, rasterelektronenmikroskopischer und röntgendiffraktometrischer Untersuchungen wurde unmittelbar bestätigt, daß sich die Oxidationsbeständigkeit der Zr-Nb 3-Sn 1-Legierung im Sauerstoff (po2 = 3,33 × 104 Pa) bei Temperaturen zwischen 400 und 460 °C mit zunehmender Kaltverformung (zwischen 10 und 50% Kaltverformungsgrad) erhöht. Die Oxidation folgt zuerst einem parabolischen Zeitgesetz mit einer Aktivierungsenergie, deren Wert mit steigender Kaltverformung zunimmt. Nach Erreichen einer kritischen Schichtdicke wird ein Übergang zu einem linearen Zeitgesetz beobachtet. Die Übergangszeit ihrerseits nimmt mit steigender Kaltverformung zu. Obwohl während des Aufbaus des Zunders drei miteinander verknüpfte Vorgänge erfolgen, stellt die Diffusion von Sauerstoff durch die Oxidschicht über Sauerstoffionen-Leerstellen und längs von Kanten und Korngrenzen den reaktionsbestimmenden Schritt dar. Die Kaltverformung bestimmt die Art des Wachstums des Zirkonoxids, zunächst durch eine bevorzugte Orientierung der α-Zr-Körner in der Legierung und danach durch eine epitaktische Ausbildung der Oxidkeime und der Oxidkristallite im weiteren Verlauf der Oxidation.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1052-9306
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Endogenous tryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, indoleacetic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic and tryptophan have been recovered from urine and cerebro-spinal fluid by adsorption on XAD-2 resin (0.3 g). After adsorption of the sample on the resin, desorption with methanol provides a single fraction that contains all of these metabolites. The mass spectra of their pentafluoropropionyl derivatives show prominent ions at m/e 276 and 438 which are characteristic of indoles and 5-hydroxyindoles, respectively, a feature that allows the concurrent determination of all the components of each group by functional group analysis. A method has been developed to carry out single ion monitoring with the peak matching system of an Hitachi RMU-6H mass spectrometer. Identifications are based on the respective Kovats Indices and single ion monitoring of two characteristic ions per compound: tryptophan (m/e 276 and 347); tryptamine (m/e 276 and 289); indoleacetic acid (m/e 276 and 335); 5-hydroxytryptamine (m/e 438 and 451); 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (m/e 438 and 497). The method described illustrates the feasibility of assaying biogenic indoleamines and acidic metabolites, as well as their precursor amino acid on a single fraction in contrast to other standard fractionation methods. This is possible even if the mass spectrometer is not equipped with an alternating voltage accelerator provided that it has a peak matcher, although the lack of an alternating voltage accelerator requires two separate injections of the same sample, for quantification and identification; one for the indole profile and another for the 5-hydroxyindole profile. Both profiles can be verified by individual monitoring of the other confirmatory ions. With this method the use of a multiple ion detector would allow a simultaneous determination of all of these metabolites in one gas chromatograph mass spectrometer run.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Hoboken, NJ : Wiley-Blackwell
    AIChE Journal 23 (1977), S. 393-395 
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0003-3146
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Bei 40, 0 und -50°C hergestellte PVC-Proben wurden nach verschiedenen Methoden fraktioniert. Die Fraktionen wurden durch Viskositätsmessungen und IR-Spektroskopie charakterisiert. Der thermische Abbau der Fraktionen wurde bei 175, 180 und 185°C durch fortlaufende Messung des abgespaltenen Chlorwasserstoffs in einem Leitfähigkeitsapparat untersucht. Die kinetischen Ergebnisse und die Spektren der Proben zeigen, daß die syndiotaktischen Sequenzen die Ursache für den schnellen Abbau sind und daß dabei lange Polyensequenzen entstehen, wie schon früher bei unfraktionierten Polymeren ermittelt wurde.
    Notes: PVC samples prepared in bulk at 40, 0, and -50°C were fractionated by different methods. The samples were characterized by viscosimetric measurements and by IR spectroscopy in order to determine the tacticity. The thermal degradation of the samples was studied at 175, 180, and 185°C by means of continuous measuring of the evolved HCl in a conductivity apparatus. From the kinetic results and the UV-visible spectra recorded on equally degraded samples follows that syndiotactic sequences give rise to high degradation rates as well as to long polyene sequences in agreement with results previously obtained with unfractionated polymers.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: AcChR-enriched membranes ; pyrenesulfonyl azide ; fluorescent probes ; photolabeling ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Acetylcholine receptor (AcChR) enriched membrane fragments from Torpedo californica electroplax were labeled by in situ photogenerated nitrenes from a hydrophobic fluorescent probe, pyrene-1-sulfonyl azide. Preferential photolabeling of membrane proteins, mainly AcChR, has been achieved and there is a pronounced exposure of the 48,000 and 55,000 molecular weight subunits of AcChR to the lipid environment of the membrane core.Covalent attachment of the photogenerated fluorescence probe does not perturb the α-neurotoxins' binding properties of membrane-bound AcChR or the desensitization kinetics induced by prolonged exposures to cholinergic agonists. Non-covalent photoproducts can be conveniently removed from labeled membrane preparations by exchange into lipid vesicles prepared from electroplax membrane lipids. Fluorescence features of model pyrene sulfonyl amide derivatives, such as fine vibrational structure of emission spectra or fluorescence lifetimes, are highly sensitive to the solvent milieu. The covalently bound probe shows similar fluorescence properties in situ. PySA photoproducts have great potential to spectroscopically monitor neurotransmitter induced events on selected AcChR subunits exposed to the hydrophobic environment of membranes.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Ion permeation, triggered by ligand-receptor interaction, is associated with the primary events of membrane depolarization at the neuromuscular junction and synaptic connections. To explore the possible sites of ion permeation, the long-lived fluorescent probe pyrene (fluorescence lifetime ∼400 nsec) has been inserted into the lipid phase of acetylcholine receptor-rich membrane (AcChR-M) preparations from Torpedo californica. The pyrene probe is susceptible to both fluidity and permeability changes in the lipid bilayer. These changes are detected by variations in the rate of decay of the excited singlet state of pyrene after pulsation with a 10-nsec ruby laser flash. Variations of these lifetimes in the membrane preparations alone or in the presence of quenchers show that binding of cholinergic agonists and antagonists, neurotoxins, and local anesthetics to AcChR-M produces varying effects on the properties of the pyrene probe in the lipid phase.It is concluded that binding of cholinergic ligands to the receptor does not significantly alter the fluidity or permeability of the lipids in the bilayer in contact with pyrene. On the other hand, local anesthetics do affect these properties.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0538-8066
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Physical Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The autoinhibiting reaction of ozone with dimethyl sulfide (DMS), has been studied at 296°K and 1.1 kPa (8 torr) as a function of the concentrations of both reactants. The major products of the reaction are H2CO, H2O, CO, and SO2. The specific rate of primary attack of O3 on DMS is immeasurably slow. It is suggested that the rapid overall rate observed for this reaction is due to a chain reaction initiated by the very slow primary reaction. It is concluded that reaction (1) cannot be important under atmospheric conditions and that the major loss process for DMS in the atmosphere is probably reaction with photochemically generated free radicals.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0360-6384
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Zeitschrift für anorganische Chemie 436 (1977), S. 105-112 
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Preparation, Temperature Behaviour, and Crystal Structure of BiF3Orthorhombic BiF3 was prepared from BiOCl and HF at 300°C through elimination of oxygen. Thermal analysis showed no transformation up to the melting point of 757°C. The orthorhombic structure of BiF3 can, however, transform into the structure of Tysonit in presence of a small amount of oxygen. The single-crystal X-ray structure determination (553 reflexions, R = 0.050) demonstrated that BiF3 is isostructural with the rare-earth trifluorides of the YF3 type (Pnma). The coordination polyhedron around Bi can be described in terms of a slightly distorted square-antiprisma (CN = 8).
    Notes: Orthorhombisches BiF3 wurde aus BiOCl und Fluorwasserstoff bei 300°C unter Ausschluß von Sauerstoff dargestellt. BiF3 zeigt bis zum Schmelzpunkt bei 757°C keine Phasen-umwandlung. Die orthorhombische BiF3-Struktur kann durch sehr geringe Sauerstoffgehalte in die Tysonitstruktur umgewandelt werden. Die Einkristall-Röntgenstrukturanalyse (553 Reflexe, R = 0,050) ergab, daß BiF3 isotyp mit den Selten-Erd-Trifluoriden vom YF3-Typ (Pnma) ist. Die Koordinationsverhältnisse um Bi können mit Hilfe eines leicht verzerrten quadratischen Antiprismas (KZ = 8) beschrieben werden.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0025-116X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Four fractions of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) having appreciably different tacticity distributions were prepared by selective extractions on samples polymerised at temperatures between +60 and -50°C. They were degraded thermally at 180°C in the solid state to conversions in the range 0,2 to 0,5% and in solution at 200°C to conversions in the range 1,6 to 5%. The polyene sequence distribution was investigated by ultra violet/visible (UV/VIS) and resonance Raman spectroscopy. The results show that the type of polyene sequence distribution depends markedly on the tacticity distribution of the polymer. Cross-linking reactions occur more readily as the syndiotacticity increases. The results are discussed and interpreted with reference to previous work relating degradation processes and tacticity.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
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