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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-10-28
    Description: ABSTRACT Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) were abundant in surface sediments of freshwater lakes and in catchment soils at altitudes from 10 to 2020 m in New Zealand. Significant differences in brGDGT compositions between lake sediments and soils indicate sources from separate microbial habitats. An expanded modern calibration dataset comprising 33 lakes has enabled a revised calibration function for determining past m ean a nnual air t emperature (MAT) from brGDGTs in New Zealand lake sediments: MAT (°C) = −31.664 × MBT m  + 16.252 ( n  = 30). The function uses a modified methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT m ) that incorporates brGDGT III in the numerator to overcome the lower correlation found between our larger dataset and the unmodified MBT which had been used for previous calibrations. Calibrations combining the cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) and the MBT m or using only certain brGDGTs are possible but have limitations. The revised function shows slightly higher correlation with MAT ( R 2  = 0.75) than previous calibrations, which were based on nine sites. The refined calibration function is applied to a ∼16 000-year lake sediment sequence from northern South Island, New Zealand, and yields temperature reconstructions that are consistent with independently derived climate trends from the same sequence.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8179
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1417
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-05-26
    Description: Using Juno plasma and wave and magnetic observations (JADE and Waves and MAG instruments), the generation mechanism of the Jovian hectometric radio emission is analyzed. It is shown that suitable conditions for the cyclotron maser instability (CMI) are observed in the regions of the radio sources. Pronounced loss cone in the electron distributions are likely the source of free energy for the instability. The theory reveals that sufficient growth rates are obtained from the distribution functions that are measured by the JADE-Electron instrument. The CMI would be driven by upgoing electron populations at 5–10 keV and 10–30° pitch angle, the amplified waves propagating at 82°–87° from the B field, a fraction of a percent above the gyrofrequency. Typical e -folding times of 10 −4  s are obtained, leading to an amplification path of ~1000 km. Overall, this scenario for generation of the Jovian hectometric waves differs significantly from the case of the auroral kilometric radiation at Earth.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Description: The optical and resonance Raman spectra of the 2,2′: 6′,2″:6″,6-trioxytriphenyl-amine cation are measured and interpreted. This molecule contains two simultaneous types of coupling between three chromophores and two types of bridging atoms. The first and conventional coupling involves a single nitrogen bridge that couples all three aryl groups. The second is provided by the three oxygen atoms, each of which bridges two adjacent aryl groups. There are two bands in the visible region of the optical absorption spectrum; their assignment and the interpretation of the contributing orbitals and electronic states are described in terms of the neighboring orbital model that explains the effects of the two types of coupling. The bonding changes that take place in the excited electronic states are probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy intensities and analyzed using the time-dependent theory of resonance Raman spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum was fit using the measured vibrational frequencies and excited state distortions. The distortions correlate well with the bonding changes predicted by the neighboring orbital model. The resonance Raman data and neighboring orbital model analysis reveal that the two optical absorption bands correspond to charge transfers from aryl groups with different nodal structures in their pi orbitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The three-chromophore cation (left) has a symmetric charge distribution in its ground state and three equivalent charge-bearing units in its lowest excited state. Coupling between the three units occurs through the central nitrogen and pair-wise through the oxygen. The effects of the coupling on the electronic and resonance Raman spectra are interpreted using the neighboring orbital model.
    Print ISSN: 0894-3230
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1395
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-16
    Description: The nuclear positioning of mammalian genes often correlates with their functional state. For instance, the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene associates with the nuclear periphery in its inactive state, but occupies interior positions when active. It is not understood how nuclear gene positioning is determined. Here, we investigated trichostatin A (TSA)-induced repositioning of CFTR in order to address molecular mechanisms controlling gene positioning. Treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA induced increased histone acetylation and CFTR repositioning towards the interior within 20 minutes. When CFTR localized in the nuclear interior (either after TSA treatment or when the gene was active) consistent histone H3 hyperacetylation was observed at a CTCF site close to the CFTR promoter. Knockdown experiments revealed that CTCF was essential for perinuclear CFTR positioning and both, CTCF knockdown as well as TSA treatment had similar and CFTR-specific effects on radial positioning. Furthermore, knockdown experiments revealed that also A-type lamins were required for the perinuclear positioning of CFTR. Together, the results showed that CTCF, A-type lamins and an active HDAC were essential for perinuclear positioning of CFTR and these components acted on a CTCF site adjacent to the CFTR promoter. The results are consistent with the idea that CTCF bound close to the CFTR promoter, A-type lamins and an active HDAC form a complex at the nuclear periphery, which becomes disrupted upon inhibition of the HDAC, leading to the observed release of CFTR. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Electronic ISSN: 0091-7419
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Description: Recycling materials from end-of-life products has the potential to create environmental benefit by displacing more harmful primary material production. However, displacement is governed by market forces and is not guaranteed; if full displacement does not occur, the environmental benefits of recycling are reduced or eliminated. Therefore, quantifying the true “displacement rate” caused by recycling is essential to accurately assess environmental benefits and make optimal environmental management decisions. Our 2016 article proposed a market-based methodology to estimate actual displacement rates following an increase in recycling or reuse. The current article demonstrates the operation, utility, and challenges of that methodology in the context of the U.S. aluminum industry. Sensitivity analyses reveal that displacement estimates are sensitive to uncertainty in price elasticities. Results suggest that 100% displacement is unlikely immediately following a sustained supply-driven increase in aluminum recycling and even less likely in the long term. However, zero and even negative displacement are possible. A variant of the model revealed that demand-driven increases in recycling are less likely than supply-driven changes to result in full displacement. However, model limitations exist and challenges arose in the estimation process, the effects of which are discussed. We suggest implications for environmental assessment, present lessons learned from applying the estimation methodology, and highlight the need for further research in the market dynamics of recycling.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-02-06
    Description: The so-called circular economy—the concept of closing material loops to preserve products, parts, and materials in the industrial system and extract their maximum utility—has recently started gaining momentum. The idea of substituting lower-impact secondary production for environmentally intensive primary production gives the circular economy a strong intuitive environmental appeal. However, proponents of the circular economy have tended to look at the world purely as an engineering system and have overlooked the economic part of the circular economy . Recent research has started to question the core of the circular economy—namely, whether closing material and product loops does, in fact, prevent primary production. In this article, we argue that circular economy activities can increase overall production, which can partially or fully offset their benefits. Because there is a strong parallel in this respect to energy efficiency rebound, we have termed this effect “circular economy rebound.” Circular economy rebound occurs when circular economy activities, which have lower per-unit-production impacts, also cause increased levels of production, reducing their benefit. We describe the mechanisms that cause circular economy rebound, which include the limited ability of secondary products to substitute for primary products, and price effects. We then offer some potential strategies for avoiding circular economy rebound. However, these strategies are unlikely to be attractive to for-profit firms, so we caution that simply encouraging private firms to find profitable opportunities in the circular economy is likely to cause rebound and lower or eliminate the potential environmental benefits.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-07-22
    Description: The most significant environmental benefit of recycling or reusing a wide range of products and materials is typically the potential to displace primary material production; lack of displacement significantly reduces the environmental benefits of these activities. Because no consensus method to estimate displacement rate has emerged, environmental assessments have tended to assume that displacement occurs on a one-to-one basis. However, displaced production is a complex phenomenon governed primarily by market mechanisms, rather than physical relationships. This article advances the understanding of displacement by presenting a market-based framework describing the displacement relationship and a methodology for quantifying displacement rate based on partial equilibrium modeling. Using this methodology, a general symbolic equation for displacement rate after an increase in recycling is derived. The model highlights the market mechanisms that govern displaced production and identifies five price response parameters that affect displacement rate. Results suggest that one-to-one displacement occurs only under specific parameter restrictions that are unlikely in competitive commodity markets, but zero displacement is possible if secondary materials are poor substitutes for primary materials; displacement is likely to be reduced if secondary materials have inferior technical properties. The presented methodology can be generally applied to any system in which recycled or reused materials are substitutes or complements for primary materials. Implications for improving recycling and reuse efficacy and environmental assessment methodology are discussed, and suggestions are presented for expanding the displacement methodology in future research.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-07-22
    Description: Environmental models tend to require increasing computational time and resources as physical process descriptions are improved or new descriptions are incorporated. Many-query applications such as sensitivity analysis or model calibration usually require a large number of model evaluations leading to high computational demand. This often limits the feasibility of rigorous analyses. Here we present a fully automated sequential screening method that selects only informative parameters for a given model output. The method requires a number of model evaluations that is approximately ten times the number of model parameters. It was tested using the mesoscale hydrologic model mHM in three hydrologically unique European river catchments. It identified around 20 informative parameters out of 52, with different informative parameters in each catchment. The screening method was evaluated with subsequent analyses using all 52 as well as only the informative parameters. Subsequent Sobol's global sensitivity analysis led to almost identical results yet required 40\% fewer model evaluations after screening. mHM was calibrated with all and with only informative parameters in the three catchments. Model performances for daily discharge were equally high in both cases with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies above 0.82. Calibration using only the informative parameters needed just one third of the number of model evaluations. The universality of the sequential screening method was demonstrated using several general test functions from the literature. We therefore recommend the use of the computationally inexpensive sequential screening method prior to rigorous analyses on complex environmental models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-10-29
    Description: The recycling of material resources lies at the heart of the industrial ecology (IE) metaphor. The very notion of the industrial ecosystem is motivated by the idea that we should learn from natural ecosystems how to “close the loop.” Recycling is not just central to IE, it is part of everyday life. Unfortunately, how the IE community and the public at large think about recycling includes several misconceptions that have the potential to misguide environmental assessments, policies, and actions that deal with recycling and thus undermine its environmental potential. One misconception stems from naïve assumptions regarding recycled material displacing primary production. Two others assert the environmental advantages of recycling material multiple times, or at least in a closed loop. A final misconception is the assumption that the distinction between closed and open recycling loops is generally useful. This article explains why these misconceptions are flawed, discusses the implications, and presents an alternative set of principles to better harness the potential environmental benefits of closing material loops.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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