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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-09-13
    Description: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) present anti-inflammatory properties and are being used with great success as treatment for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In clinical applications MSCs are subjected to a strong pro-inflammatory environment, essential to their immunosuppressive action. Despite the wide clinical use of these cells, how MSCs exert their effect remains unclear. Several lipids are known to be involved in cell's signaling and modulation of cellular functions. The aim of this paper is to examine the variation in lipid profile of MSCs under pro-inflammatory environment, induced by the presence of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ), using the most modern lipidomic approach. Major changes in lipid molecular profile of phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine (PS), lysoPC (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) classes were found. No changes were observed in the phosphatidylinositol (PI) profile. The levels of PC species with shorter fatty acids (FAs) acyl chains, mainly C16:0, decreased under pro-inflammatory stimuli. The level of PC(40:6) also decreased, which may be correlated with enhanced levels of LPC(18:0), which is known to be an anti-inflammatory LPC, observed in MSCs subjected to TNF-α and IFN-γ. Simultaneously, the relative amounts of PC(36:1) and PC(38:4) increased. TNF-α and IFN-γ also enhanced the levels of PE(40:6) and decreased the levels of PE(O-38:6). Higher expression of PS(36:1) and SM(34:0) along with a decrease in PS(38:6) levels were observed. These results indicate that lipid metabolism and signaling are modulated during MSCs activation, which suggests that lipids may be involved in MSCs functional and anti-inflammatory activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-4652
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-02-12
    Description: This paper reports on the effect of the temperature used to activate kaolinite-based paper industry waste on the hydration products obtained when the activated waste was mixed with a lime solution. After activation at temperatures ranging from 500° to 700°C, clay waste exhibited high pozzolanic activity. Analysis with instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy showed that higher temperatures favored the formation of calcium aluminate hydrates, hydrotalcite-like compounds, and strätlingite, while at lower temperatures, CSH gels constituted the majority hydrated phase. According to these findings, reaction kinetics differed substantially from the results obtained at temperatures of 700°–800°C, particularly in terms of phase quantity and timing of appearance. This study shows that metakaolinite can be obtained from clay waste at temperatures of under 700°C. The hydrated phases forming under these conditions are the same as more observed at higher activation temperatures (〉700°C). The main differences found were the sequence of phase formation and the quantity of hydrates detected.
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract Controlled release of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the soil and atmosphere is performed to test detection and monitoring tools, for which several field laboratories were established by a number of institutions worldwide. Numerical simulations of CO2 behavior in the shallow subsurface region are other forms of validation and verification of the leakage pathways and destinations. These studies aim to improve monitoring and verification of CO2 in case of unexpected leakages for public assurance. In this work, we present the results of a numerical modeling study conducted to simulate the injection of CO2 as carried out during a field test in Viamão, southern Brazil, where 20 kg day–1 of CO2 was pumped for 30 days through a vertical well 3 m below ground in an altered granitic soil. Multiphase flow simulations were performed with the TOUGH2/EOS7CA software for unsaturated porous media, using field data and injection parameters, including sensitivity tests to permeability direction, diffusivity, and boundary conditions. Results with increased horizontal permeabilities are in better agreement with the field observations. In this condition, mass balance calculations indicate approximately 90% of injected CO2 (20 kg day–1 during 30 days) remains in the soil after 180 days from injection start, consistent with the measured flow through the soil–atmosphere interface. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Electronic ISSN: 2152-3878
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Water issues are always local, even when transboundary. Therefore, efforts to manage these resources should be pursued and implemented at the local and regional levels, regardless of binding or nonbinding nature of any arrangements. Abstract Binational efforts to understand, assess, and manage shared groundwater resources on the Mexico‐Texas border are limited and politically sensitive. On the Mexico side, long‐standing centralized groundwater governance structures have created institutional barriers at the local level to the expansion of knowledge and cooperation over these transboundary resources. On the Texas side, property rights related to groundwater resources limit the scope of options available for cooperative management of cross‐border aquifers. In order to develop more effective cross‐border relations and enhance knowledge, cooperative management, and sustainability of the region's shared aquifers, stakeholders in the border between Mexico and Texas should pursue local and regional arrangements that focus primarily on water quality and environmental issues. Additionally, in order for the results of local efforts to be permanent and sustainable, they must consider the more formal, long‐term cooperative models that tend to have stronger systemic impacts and funding commitments. In addition, stakeholders and officials must make a better effort to educate the public on the science and facts in order to avoid past experiences where fear and political lobbying scuttled viable and promising cooperative efforts. This article is categorized under: Engineering Water 〉 Planning Water Human Water 〉 Water Governance
    Electronic ISSN: 2049-1948
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-15
    Description: The interactive effect of sugar beet (SB) agrowaste and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation in response to increasing Cu levels was evaluated in the metallophyte Oenothera picensis . Plants were grown in a Cu-added soil (0, 100, or 500 mg Cu kg −1 ), in presence or absence of SB, and inoculated with: (1) indigenous Cu adapted mycorrhiza (IM) isolated from Cu-polluted soils; (2) Claroideoglomus claroideum (CC); or (3) maintained uninoculated (control). Sugar beet application produced an increase in shoot biomass of 2 to 7 times, improving plant nutritional status and allowing their survival at the highest Cu concentrations. Moreover, AM fungi utilization had a positive effect promoting the plant establishment; nevertheless, Cu plant concentration as well as the mycorrhizal development in terms of AM colonization, AM spore density, and glomalin production were strictly dependent of the AM fungi strains used. Remarkable differences between AM fungi strains were observed at the highest soil Cu level where only plants colonized by IM were able to survive and grow when no SB residue was added. An interactive effect between AM fungi and SB produced a higher plant growth than plants without the amendment application, improving the plant establishment and allowing their survival at highest copper concentrations, suggesting that this combination could be used as a biotechnological tool for the phytoremediation of Cu-polluted soils.
    Print ISSN: 1436-8730
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-2624
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-04-02
    Description: Glass nanocomposites, fabricated using borosilicate glass microspheres and antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles, were previously reported to have formed segregated networks at the boundaries of the glass particles. This resulted in an electrically conducting composite at low volume fractions (~0.5–0.8 vol%) of ATO nanoparticles. The wide range of electrical response in these borosilicate glass composites containing networks of varying concentration of ATO was examined using impedance spectroscopy. The electrical resistance of these composites varied over a range of around 12 orders of magnitude and exhibited several different types of insulator and conductor behavior. The formation of the ATO network was identified and tracked by scanning electron microscopy images and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) scans. Detailed impedance spectroscopy analysis using all of the dielectric functions (impedance, permittivity, electric modulus, and admittance) was found to be an excellent method for detecting the development of the network and the effect that processing variables can have on its formation and the overall electrical properties of the nanocomposites.
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-06-03
    Description: Questions What changes have occurred in Mediterranean high-mountain communities during the last 50 yr? Do these changes reflect upward shifts and decline in dry grassland specialists due to climate warming? Location Upper belt (1900–2400 m a.s.l.) in Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain. Methods We re-surveyed dry grassland communities in 50 summits that were previously sampled between the 1960s and 1980s. New plots were placed in the same localities and the same conditions as the original surveys. Changes at the species level were evaluated by comparing, between the two survey periods, species frequencies and optimal altitude estimated by local distribution models done with Maxent. Changes at the community level were assessed by comparing species richness and composition of the two surveys in relation to altitude, plot size and time between surveys. We evaluated observed changes in the whole data set and species groups by structuring the species into dry grassland specialists, other alpine species and generalists occurring at wider altitudinal ranges. Results There was a general decline in the frequency of dry grassland specialists, an increase in frequency of generalists and no clear trends in the other species. Upward shifts were mainly detected in generalists, with significant increases in frequency. At the community level, we found a general increase in species richness that was mainly determined by the increase in generalists; coupled with a decline in number of dry grassland specialists. The structure of the communities evidenced changes between the historical surveys and the re-survey, which were mainly correlated with the number of years and the increasing dominance of generalists. Conclusions In contrast with trends observed in other Mediterranean high-mountain communities, our study reports a general increase in species richness, although this effect is concurrent with a decline in dry grassland specialists. The observed trends support on-going replacement of endemic species by low-altitude species, and associated changes in community assemblages. Despite the limitations of re-visitation studies for assessing climate-driven changes, our results highlight the necessity of developing more studies for assessing the effects of drought in Mediterranean high-mountain communities. Climate-driven changes in Mediterranean mountains have been rarely assessed. Through a re-visitation study on high-mountain sites sampled in the XX century, we detected temporal patterns of decline in specialists and increase in generalists and total species richness. Altogether. these patterns differ from changes observed in other Mediterranean or Temperate regions.
    Print ISSN: 1100-9233
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-1103
    Topics: Biology
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-09-20
    Description: The sensitivity of solar irradiance at the surface to the variability of aerosol intensive optical properties is investigated for a site (Alta Floresta) in the southern portion of the Amazon basin using detailed comparisons between measured and modeled irradiances. Apart from aerosol intensive optical properties, specifically single scattering albedo (ωoλ) and asymmetry parameter (gλ), which were assumed constant, all other relevant input to the model were prescribed based on observation. For clean conditions, the differences between observed and modeled irradiances were consistent with instrumental uncertainty. For polluted conditions, the agreement was significantly worse, with a root mean square difference three times larger (23.5 Wm−2). Analysis revealed a noteworthy correlation between the irradiance differences (observed minus modeled) and the column water vapor (CWV) for polluted conditions. Positive differences occurred mostly in wet conditions, while the differences became more negative as the atmosphere dried. To explore the hypothesis that the irradiance differences might be linked to the modulation of ωoλ and gλ by humidity, AERONET retrievals of aerosol properties and CWV over the same site were analyzed. The results highlight the potential role of humidity in modifying ωoλ and gλ and suggest that to explain the relationship seen between irradiances differences via aerosols properties the focus has to be on humidity-dependent processes that affect particles chemical composition. Undoubtedly, there is a need to better understand the role of humidity in modifying the properties of smoke aerosols in the southern portion of the Amazon basin.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-12-24
    Description: Altered phospholipid (PL) metabolism has been associated with pregnancy disorders. Moreover, lipid molecules such as endocannabinoids (eCBs) and prostaglandins (PGs) are important mediators of reproductive events. In humans, abnormal decidualization has been linked with unexplained infertility, miscarriage and endometrial pathologies. Anandamide (AEA), the major eCB, induces apoptosis in rat decidual cells. In this study, the PL profile of rat decidual cells was characterized by a Mass spectrometry (MS) based lipidomic approach. Furthermore, we analyzed a possible correlation between changes in PL of rat decidual cells' membrane and AEA-induced apoptosis. We found an increase in phosphatidylserine and a reduction of cardiolipin and phophatidylinositol relative contents. In addition, we observed an increase in the content of alkyl(alkenyl)acylPL, plasmalogens, and of long chain fatty acids especially with high degrees of unsaturation, as well as an increase in lipid hydroperoxides in treated cells. These findings provide novel insights on deregulation of lipid metabolism by anandamide, which may display further implications in decidualization process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Electronic ISSN: 1097-4652
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-10-03
    Description: Glass composites containing percolated segregated networks of conducting antimony tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles were fabricated through the use of a hot-pressing technique, which resulted in glass microspheres deforming into faceted polyhedra with the ATO located at the edges. Once the ATO percolated, it was shown that minor changes in the processing parameters could cause drastic differences in the electrical properties (as much as 4–5 orders of magnitude in some cases). This study aims to investigate how the hot-pressing processing conditions, that is, temperature and pressure, can influence the electrical properties of percolated glass/ATO composites. Glass composites containing 4.8 wt% ATO, which is a concentration higher than the percolation threshold, were hot pressed at several different temperatures (550°C–675°C) and pressures (5.8–23.4 MPa) and were examined using impedance spectroscopy. A comprehensive equivalent circuit model was developed based on the microstructure of the composites and the individual impedance behavior of the materials involved. It was found that the physical arrangement as well as the individual properties of the glass, the ATO nanoparticles, and the different interfaces between ATO (point contact vs partially sintered vs glass coated) all contributed to the measured response in a quantitative way. The equivalent circuit model was successful in fitting all of the impedance behaviors at different temperature and pressures thus revealing the influence of the processing conditions on the electrical properties of percolated ATO/glass composites.
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Published by Wiley
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