ABSTRACT Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most commonly prescribed antibiotics around the world due to its broad-spectrum activity against different bacterial strains as well as its use as a growth promoter in animal husbandry. Although residues of this antibacterial agent have been found in water bodies in diverse countries, there is not enough information on its potential toxicity to aquatic organisms such as the common carp Cyprinus carpio . This study aimed to evaluate AMX-induced oxidative stress in brain, gill, liver and kidney of C. carpio . Carp were exposed to three different concentrations of AMX (10 ng/L, 10 μg/L, 10 mg/L) for 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, and the following biomarkers were evaluated: lipid peroxidation (LPX), hydroperoxide content (HPC), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Amoxicillin and its main degradation product amoxicilloic acid (AMA) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection and UV detection (HPLC-EC-UV). Significant increases in LPX, HPC, and PCC ( P 〈 0.05) were found in all study organs, particularly kidney, as well as significant changes in antioxidant enzymes activity. Amoxicilloic acid in water is concluded to induce oxidative stress in C. carpio , this damage being highest in kidney. The biomarkers used are effective for the assessment of the environmental impact of this agent on aquatic species. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2016.
Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering