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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-28
    Description: The variations of the 3-D coronal magnetic fields associated with the X3.4-class flare of active region 10930 are studied in this paper. The coronal magnetic field data are reconstructed from the photospheric vector magnetograms obtained by the Hinode satellite and using the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation method developed in our previous work (He et al., 2011). The 3-D force-free factor α , 3-D current density, and 3-D magnetic energy density are employed to analyze the coronal data. The distributions of α and current density reveal a prominent magnetic connectivity with strong negative α values and strong current density before the flare. This magnetic connectivity extends along the main polarity inversionline and, is found to be totally broken after the flare. The distribution variation of magnetic energy density reveals the re-distribution of magnetic energy before and after the flare. In the lower space of the modeling volume the increase of magnetic energy dominates, and in the higher space the decrease of energy dominates. The comparison with the flare onset imaging observation exhibits that the breaking site of the magnetic connectivity and site with the highest values of energy density increase coincide with the location of flare initial eruption. We conclude that a cramped positive α region appearing in the photosphere causes the breaking of the magnetic connectivity. A scenario for flare initial eruption is proposed in which the Lorentz force acting on the isolated electric current at the magnetic connectivity breaking site lifts the associated plasmas and causes the initial ejection.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-05-19
    Description: We explore the variations of Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity beneath eastern China in a broad period range (20-200 s). Rayleigh-wave dispersion curves are measured by the two-station technique for a total of 734 interstation paths using vertical-component broad-band waveforms at 39 seismic stations in eastern China from 466 global earthquakes. In addition, 599 waveform-inversion interstation measurements were added to this dataset. The interstation dispersion curves are then inverted for high-resolution isotropic and azimuthally anisotropic phase-velocity maps at periods between 20 and 200 s. At shorter periods sampling the crustal depth range, phase velocities are higher in the southeastern part of the region, reflecting the thinner crust there. The Jiangnan Belt separates Cathaysia from the Yangtze Craton, the latter with thicker crust and a deep, high-velocity cratonic root. The eastern part of Yangtze Craton, however, east of 115-116 °E, does not display a deep root and has a thin lithosphere. Azimuthal anisotropy at long periods (〉120 s) shows fast-propagation directions broadly similar to that of the absolute plate motion. Beneath Cathaysia and eastern Yangtze Craton, anisotropy in the asthenosphere is strong and suggests coast-perpendicular flow. Asthenospheric flow from beneath China's thick continental lithosphere towards the thinner lithosphere of the margin and the resulting decompression melting may be the fundamental causes of the intraplate basaltic volcanism along the eastern coast of China.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-02-21
    Description: Carbon cycling in the coastal zone affects global carbon budgets and is critical for understanding the urgent issues of hypoxia, acidification, and tidal wetland loss. However, there are no regional carbon budgets spanning the three main ecosystems in coastal waters: tidal wetlands, estuaries, and shelf waters. Here, we construct such a budget for Eastern North America using historical data, empirical models, remote-sensing algorithms, and process-based models. Considering the net fluxes of total carbon at the domain boundaries, 59 ± 12% (± 2 standard errors) of the carbon entering is from rivers and 41 ± 12% is from the atmosphere, while 80 ± 9% of the carbon leaving is exported to the open ocean and 20 ± 9% is buried. Net lateral carbon transfers between the three main ecosystem types are comparable to fluxes at the domain boundaries. Each ecosystem type contributes substantially to exchange with the atmosphere, with CO 2 uptake split evenly between tidal wetlands and shelf waters, and estuarine CO 2 outgassing offsetting half of the uptake. Similarly, burial is about equal in tidal wetlands and shelf waters, while estuaries play a smaller but still substantial role. The importance of tidal wetlands and estuaries in the overall budget is remarkable given that they respectively make up only 2.4 and 8.9% of the study domain area. This study shows that coastal carbon budgets should explicitly include tidal wetlands, estuaries, shelf waters and the linkages between them; ignoring any of them may produce a biased picture of coastal carbon cycling.
    Print ISSN: 0886-6236
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-9224
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geography , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Limnology and Oceanography Bulletin, Volume 28, Issue 2, Page 61-62, May 2019.
    Print ISSN: 1539-607X
    Electronic ISSN: 1539-6088
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract The physical parameterization of key processes in land surface models (LSMs) remains uncertain, and new techniques are required to evaluate LSMs accuracy over large spatial scales. Given the role of soil moisture in the partitioning of surface water fluxes (between infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration), surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates represent an important observational benchmark for such evaluations. Here, we apply SSM estimates from the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive Level‐4 product (SMAP_L4) to diagnose bias in the correlation between SSM and surface runoff for multiple Noah‐Multiple Physics (Noah‐MP) LSM parameterization cases. Results demonstrate that Noah‐MP surface runoff parameterizations often underestimate the correlation between prestorm SSM and the event‐scale runoff coefficient (RC; defined as the ratio between event‐scale streamflow and precipitation volumes). This bias can be quantified against an observational benchmark calculated using streamflow observations and SMAP_L4 SSM and applied to explain a substantial fraction of the observed basin‐to‐basin (and case‐to‐case) variability in the skill of event‐scale RC estimates from Noah‐MP. Most notably, a low bias in LSM‐predicted SSM/RC correlation squanders RC information contained in prestorm SSM and reduces LSM RC estimation skill. Based on this concept, a novel case selection strategy for ungauged basins is introduced and demonstrated to successfully identify poorly performing Noah‐MP parameterization cases.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-02-09
    Description: A method for the inversion of hyperspectral remote sensing was developed to determine the absorption coefficient for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya river plume regions and the northern Gulf of Mexico, where water types vary from Case 1 to turbid Case 2. Above-surface hyperspectral remote sensing data were measured by a ship-mounted spectroradiometer and then used to estimate CDOM. Simultaneously, water absorption and attenuation coefficients, CDOM and chlorophyll fluorescence, turbidities, and other related water properties were also measured at very high resolution (0.5–2 m) using in situ, underwater, and flow-through (shipboard, pumped) optical sensors. We separate ag, the absorption coefficient a of CDOM, from adg (a of CDOM and nonalgal particles) based on two absorption-backscattering relationships. The first is between ad (a of nonalgal particles) and bbp (total particulate backscattering coefficient), and the second is between ap (a of total particles) and bbp. These two relationships are referred as ad-based and ap-based methods, respectively. Consequently, based on Lee's quasi-analytical algorithm (QAA), we developed the so-called Extended Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA-E) to decompose adg, using both ad-based and ap-based methods. The absorption-backscattering relationships and the QAA-E were tested using synthetic and in situ data from the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group (IOCCG) as well as our own field data. The results indicate the ad-based method is relatively better than the ap-based method. The accuracy of CDOM estimation is significantly improved by separating ag from adg (R2 = 0.81 and 0.65 for synthetic and in situ data, respectively). The sensitivities of the newly introduced coefficients were also analyzed to ensure QAA-E is robust.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-08-15
    Description: Ecology, Ahead of Print. Reciprocal transplant experiments have often provided evidence of local adaptation in temperate plants, but few such studies have been conducted in the tropics. To enhance our knowledge of local adaptation in tropical plants, we studied natural populations of two recently diverged Neotropical plant species, Costus allenii and C. villosissimus, in central Panama. We found that these species display a parapatric distribution that reflects local environmental differences on a fine geographic scale: C. allenii is found along ravines in the understory of primary forest, while C. villosissimus is found along forest edges. Light availability was lower in C. allenii habitats, while precipitation and soil moisture were lower in C. villosissimus habitats. We carried out reciprocal transplant experiments with seeds and clones of mature plants to test the hypothesis that the parapatric distribution of these species is due to divergent adaptation to their local habitats. We found strong evidence of local adaptation, i.e., when grown in their "home" sites. each species outperformed the species from an "away" site. Our finding that C. allenii and C. villosissimus are mainly isolated by their microhabitats provides a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of adaptation and speciation in the tropics.
    Print ISSN: 0012-9658
    Electronic ISSN: 1939-9170
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of The Ecological Society of America (ESA).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-12-27
    Description: Remote sensing provides aerosol loading information, but to address climate and air quality model validation, there are additional needs to acquire aerosol composition information. In this study, a comprehensive aerosol composition model is established to quantify black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), mineral dust (DU), particulate organic matters (POM), ammonium sulfate-like (AS), sea salt (SS) and aerosol water uptake (AW). We develop forward modeling of aerosol components, including microphysical parameters (real and imaginary refractive indices, volume fraction ratio of fine to coarse mode and sphericity) and hygroscopic growth models, and propose an optimization scheme to estimate the components. The uncertainties caused by input parameters are also assessed. Sun-sky radiometer measurements, meteorological data and chemical measurements obtained during a campaign in Huairou, Beijing, are processed to estimate aerosol components, which are further compared with in-situ synchronous chemical measurements. The results show generally good consistencies between remotely estimated and measured components (e.g., correlation coefficients for BC, BrC, AS and PM 2.5 lie in about 0.8-0.9). The comparisons between modeled and observed microphysical parameters also show good agreements, with the exception of sphericity, which is likely caused by high uncertainties of this parameter. Sensitivity studies show that BC and BrC are highly sensitive to imaginary refractive index, while DU is strongly correlated to both volume size and sphericity. The performance of composition retrieval is expected to be improved when the sphericity uncertainty is significantly reduced.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-05-12
    Description: Recent advances in remote sensing and land data assimilation purport to improve the quality of antecedent soil moisture information available for operational hydrologic forecasting. We objectively validate this claim by calculating the strength of the relationship between storm-scale runoff ratio (i.e., total stream flow divided by total rainfall accumulation in depth units) and pre-storm surface soil moisture estimates from a range of surface soil moisture data products. Results demonstrate that both satellite-based, L-band microwave radiometry and the application of land data assimilation techniques have significantly improved the utility of surface soil moisture data sets for forecasting stream flow response to future rainfall events.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-07-21
    Description: Drylands are home to more than 38% of the world's population and are one of the most sensitive areas to climate change and human activities. This review describes recent progress in dryland climate change research. Recent findings indicate that the long-term trend of the aridity index (AI) is mainly attributable to increased greenhouse gas emissions while anthropogenic aerosols exert small effects but alter its attributions. Atmosphere-land interactions determine the intensity of regional response. The largest warming during the last 100 years was observed over drylands and accounted for more than half of the continental warming. The global pattern and inter-decadal variability of aridity changes are modulated by oceanic oscillations. The different phases of those oceanic oscillations induce significant changes in land-sea and north-south thermal contrasts, which affect the intensity of the westerlies and planetary waves and the blocking frequency, thereby altering global changes in temperature and precipitation. During 1948-2008, the drylands in the Americas became wetter due to enhanced westerlies, whereas the drylands in the Eastern Hemisphere became drier because of the weakened East Asian summer monsoon. Drylands as defined by the AI have expanded over the last sixty years and are projected to expand in the 21 st century. The largest expansion of drylands has occurred in semi-arid regions since the early 1960s. Dryland expansion will lead to reduced carbon sequestration and enhanced regional warming. The increasing aridity, enhanced warming and rapidly growing population will exacerbate the risk of land degradation and desertification in the near future in developing countries.
    Print ISSN: 8755-1209
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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