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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-08-03
    Description: ABSTRACT There has been long debate on the asthenospheric versus lithospheric source for numerous intraplate basalts with ocean island basalt (OIB) and high time-integrated U/Pb (HIMU)-like source signatures that have erupted through the Zealandia continental crust. Analysis of 157 spinel facies peridotitic mantle xenoliths from 25 localities across Zealandia permits the first comprehensive regional description of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and insights into whether it could be a source to the intraplate basalts. Contrary to previous assumptions, the Oligocene-Miocene Zealandia SCLM is highly heterogeneous. It is composed of a refractory craton-like domain (West Otago) adjacent to several moderately fertile domains (East Otago, North Otago, Auckland Islands). Each domain has an early history decoupled from the overlying Carboniferous and younger continental crust, and each domain has undergone varying degrees of depletion followed by re-enrichment. Clinopyroxene grains reveal trace element characteristics (low Ti/Eu, high Th/U) consistent with enrichment through reaction with carbonatite. This metasomatic overprint has a composition that closely matches HIMU in Sr, Pb + Nd isotopes. However, clinopyroxene Hf isotopes are in part highly radiogenic and decoupled from the other isotope systems, and also mostly more radiogenic than the intraplate basalts. If the studied spinel facies xenoliths are representative of the thin Zealandia SCLM, the melting of garnet facies lithosphere could only be the intraplate basalt source if it had a less radiogenic Hf-Nd isotope composition than the investigated spinel facies, or was mixed asthenospheric-derived melts containing less radiogenic Hf.
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-2027
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-05-02
    Description: The volcanic succession on Montserrat provides an opportunity to examine the magmatic evolution of island arc volcanism over a ∼2.5 Ma period, extending from the andesites of the Silver Hills center, to the currently active Soufrière Hills volcano (February 2010). Here we present high-precision double-spike Pb isotope data, combined with trace element and Sr-Nd isotope data throughout this period of Montserrat's volcanic evolution. We demonstrate that each volcanic center; South Soufrière Hills, Soufrière Hills, Centre Hills and Silver Hills, can be clearly discriminated using trace element and isotopic parameters. Variations in these parameters suggest there have been systematic and episodic changes in the subduction input. The SSH center, in particular, has a greater slab fluid signature, as indicated by low Ce/Pb, but less sediment addition than the other volcanic centers, which have higher Th/Ce. Pb isotope data from Montserrat fall along two trends, the Silver Hills, Centre Hills and Soufrière Hills lie on a general trend of the Lesser Antilles volcanics, whereas SSH volcanics define a separate trend. The Soufrière Hills and SSH volcanic centers were erupted at approximately the same time, but retain distinctive isotopic signatures, suggesting that the SSH magmas have a different source to the other volcanic centers. We hypothesize that this rapid magmatic source change is controlled by the regional transtensional regime, which allowed the SSH magma to be extracted from a shallower source. The Pb isotopes indicate an interplay between subduction derived components and a MORB-like mantle wedge influenced by a Galapagos plume-like source.
    Electronic ISSN: 1525-2027
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-02-04
    Description: The influence of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) on surface ozone (O3) concentrations in the greater Los Angeles area during the CalNex and IONS-2010 measurement campaigns has been investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) of surface O3 measurements from 41 sampling stations indicates that ∼13% of the variance in the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) O3 between May 10 and June 19, 2010 was associated with changes of 2–3 day duration linked to the passage of upper-level troughs. Ozonesondes launched from Joshua Tree National Park and airborne lidar measurements show that these changes coincided with the appearance of stratospheric intrusions in the lower troposphere above southern California. The Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART reproduces most of these intrusions, and supports the conclusion from the PCA that significant transport of stratospheric air to the surface occurred on May 28–30. This intrusion led to a peak 1-h O3 concentration of 88 ppbv at Joshua Tree National Monument near the ozonesonde launch site on May 28, and widespread entrainment of stratospheric air into the boundary layer increased the local background O3 over the entire area to ∼55 ppbv on May 29–30. This background was 10–15 ppbv higher than the baseline O3 in air transported ashore from the Pacific Ocean, and when combined with locally produced O3 led to several exceedances of the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) on the following day.
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract The ionized upper portion of the atmosphere, the ionosphere, affects radio signals traveling between satellites and the ground. This degrades the performance of satellite navigation, surveillance, and communication systems. Techniques to measure and mitigate ionospheric effects and in particular to measure the total electron content (TEC) are therefore required. TEC is usually determined by analyzing the differential delay experienced by dual‐frequency signals. Here we demonstrate a technique which enables TEC to be derived using single‐frequency signals passing between geostationary satellites and terrestrial Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. Geostationary satellites offer the key advantage that the raypaths are not moving and hence are easier to interpret than standard GPS TEC. Daily TEC time series are derived for three ground receivers from Europe over the year 2015. The technique is validated by correlation analysis both between pairs of ground receiver observations and between ground receivers and independent ionosonde observations. The correlation between pairs of receivers over a year shows good agreement. Good agreement was also seen between the TEC time series and ionosonde data, suggesting the technique is reliable and routinely produces realistic ionospheric information. The technique is not suitable for use on every GPS receiver type because drift in derived TEC values was observed for profiles calculated using receivers without links to highly stable clocks. The demonstrated technique has the potential to become a routine method to derive TEC, helping to map the ionosphere in real time and to mitigate ionospheric effects on radio systems.
    Print ISSN: 0048-6604
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-799X
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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