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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0305-0270
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2699
    Topics: Biology , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-11-11
    Description: Symbiosis, the living-together of unlike organisms, underlies every major transition in evolution and pervades most ecological dynamics. Among examples of symbioses, the simultaneous occupation of a termite nest by its builder termites and intruding invertebrate species (so-called termitophily) provides suitable macroscopic scenarios for the study of species coexistence in confined environments. Current evidence on termitophily abounds for dynamics occurring at the interindividual level within the termitarium, but is insufficient for broader scales such as the community and the landscape. Here, we inspect the effects of abiotic disturbance on termitophile presence and function in termitaria at these broader scales. To do so, we censused the termitophile communities inhabiting 30 termitaria of distinct volumes which had been exposed to increasing degrees of fire-induced disturbance in a savanna-like ecosystem in southeastern Brazil. We provide evidence that such an abiotic disturbance can ease the living-together of termitophiles and termites. Putative processes facilitating these symbioses, however, varied according to the invader. For nonsocial invaders, disturbance seemed to boost coexistence with termites via the habitat amelioration that termitaria provided under wildfire, as suggested by the positive correlation between disturbance degree and termitophile abundance and richness. As for social invaders (ants), disturbance seemed to enhance associational defenses with termites, as suggested by the negative correlation between the presence of ant colonies and the richness and abundance of other termitarium-cohabiting termitophiles. It is then apparent that disturbance-modulated distinct symbioses in these termite nests. Fire-induced disturbance boosted coexistence of termites and non-social termitophiles via the habitat amelioration that termitaria provided under wildfire. Simultaneously, harsh conditions enhanced termitaria defense by social termitophiles (ants).
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: In this work, we investigate the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the Apollonius type additive functional equation in modular spaces with or without Δ 2 -conditions. We study the same problem in fuzzy Banach spaces and β -homogeneous Banach spaces. We show the hyperstability of the functional equation associated with the Jordan triple product in fuzzy Banach algebras. The obtained results can be applied to differential and integral equations with kernels of non-power types.
    Electronic ISSN: 2227-7390
    Topics: Mathematics
    Published by MDPI
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-11-18
    Print ISSN: 0009-9236
    Electronic ISSN: 1532-6535
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-08-04
    Description: The analysis of ecological networks is generally bottom-up, where networks are established by observing interactions between individuals. Emergent network properties have been indicated to reflect the dominant mode of interactions in communities that might be mutualistic (e.g., pollination) or antagonistic (e.g., host–parasitoid communities). Many ecological communities, however, comprise species interactions that are difficult to observe directly. Here, we propose that a comparison of the emergent properties from detail-rich reference communities with known modes of interaction can inform our understanding of detail-sparse focal communities. With this top-down approach, we consider patterns of coexistence between termite species that live as guests in mounds built by other host termite species as a case in point. Termite societies are extremely sensitive to perturbations, which precludes determining the nature of their interactions through direct observations. We perform a literature review to construct two networks representing termite mound cohabitation in a Brazilian savanna and in the tropical forest of Cameroon. We contrast the properties of these cohabitation networks with a total of 197 geographically diverse mutualistic plant–pollinator and antagonistic host–parasitoid networks. We analyze network properties for the networks, perform a principal components analysis (PCA), and compute the Mahalanobis distance of the termite networks to the cloud of mutualistic and antagonistic networks to assess the extent to which the termite networks overlap with the properties of the reference networks. Both termite networks overlap more closely with the mutualistic plant–pollinator communities than the antagonistic host–parasitoid communities, although the Brazilian community overlap with mutualistic communities is stronger. The analysis raises the hypothesis that termite–termite cohabitation networks may be overall mutualistic. More broadly, this work provides support for the argument that cryptic communities may be analyzed via comparison to well-characterized communities. Many species–species interactions are difficult to observe directly. Here we propose that comparing the network topology of these obfuscated communities to the network topology of well-studied, detail-rich communities will provide insight into the structure of the obfuscated communities. We examine termite mound cohabitation as a case study; the analysis raises the hypothesis that the interactions contained therein may be overall mutualistic.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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