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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-11-07
    Description: The Pleistocene was characterized by worldwide shifts in community compositions. Some of these shifts were a result of changes in fire regimes, which influenced the distribution of species belonging to fire-dependent communities. We studied an endangered juniper–oak shrubland specialist, the black-capped vireo ( Vireo atricapilla ). This species was locally extirpated in parts of Texas and Oklahoma by the end of the 1980s as a result of habitat change and loss, predation, brood parasitism, and anthropogenic fire suppression. We sequenced multiple nuclear loci and used coalescence methods to obtain a deeper understanding of historical population trends than that typically available from microsatellites or mtDNA. We compared our estimated population history, a long-term history of the fire regime and ecological niche models representing the mid-Holocene, last glacial maximum, and last interglacial. Our Bayesian skyline plots showed a pattern of historical population fluctuation that was consistent with changing fire regimes. Genetic data suggest that the species is genetically unstructured, and that the current population should be orders of magnitude larger than it is at present. We suggest that fire suppression and habitat loss are primary factors contributing to the recent decline of the BCVI, although the role of climate change since the last glacial maximum is unclear at present. We used DNA sequences from multiple nuclear loci to investigate the long-term population history of the black-capped vireo. We found that population fluctuations are correlated with changes in the fire regime that affects the extent of the species habitat. The data suggest that BCVIs could be much more abundant than they are at present, owing likely to fire suppression and other anthropogenic influences on habitat extent.
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-7758
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-29
    Description: The recycling of material resources lies at the heart of the industrial ecology (IE) metaphor. The very notion of the industrial ecosystem is motivated by the idea that we should learn from natural ecosystems how to “close the loop.” Recycling is not just central to IE, it is part of everyday life. Unfortunately, how the IE community and the public at large think about recycling includes several misconceptions that have the potential to misguide environmental assessments, policies, and actions that deal with recycling and thus undermine its environmental potential. One misconception stems from naïve assumptions regarding recycled material displacing primary production. Two others assert the environmental advantages of recycling material multiple times, or at least in a closed loop. A final misconception is the assumption that the distinction between closed and open recycling loops is generally useful. This article explains why these misconceptions are flawed, discusses the implications, and presents an alternative set of principles to better harness the potential environmental benefits of closing material loops.
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-10-14
    Print ISSN: 1088-1980
    Electronic ISSN: 1530-9290
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-03-17
    Description: At the end of waste disposal in 2005, a temporary mineral system was constructed to cover the waste body of the municipal landfill in Rastorf (N Germany). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this temporary cover system in limiting the infiltration of surface water into the waste body. The numerical modeling for the hydrological year 2012 was performed in FEFLOW 6.0. The required input data for modeling were achieved by laboratory measurements of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the water retention characteristics of the mineral layers. The assumed initial and boundary conditions were based on in-situ measurements of matrix potential and volumetric water content at three different measuring points by tensiometers, FDR sensors and observed meteorological conditions. The model was applied according to Darcy's and Richards' equations for variably saturated flow. Our results allowed assessing the components of water balance for a temporary cover system, especially water seepage into the waste body. The correlation between the measured and modeled volumetric soil water content in the layered temporary cover system was observed ( R 2 = 0.56 to 0.90). Deviations between the measured and modeled values are superficially related to the soil´s heterogeneity. In conclusion, the measured and modeled water balance parameters indicate that the temporary coverage system remains effective in limiting the infiltration rate. However, our studies revealed that the calculated and measured water seepage exceeded the values allowable by the German regulations. Additional studies have to assess variations in the soil water characteristics caused by weather-related wetting and drying cycles and influence of waste settlement changing the profile of slope.
    Print ISSN: 1436-8730
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-2624
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-10-28
    Description: ABSTRACT Branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) were abundant in surface sediments of freshwater lakes and in catchment soils at altitudes from 10 to 2020 m in New Zealand. Significant differences in brGDGT compositions between lake sediments and soils indicate sources from separate microbial habitats. An expanded modern calibration dataset comprising 33 lakes has enabled a revised calibration function for determining past m ean a nnual air t emperature (MAT) from brGDGTs in New Zealand lake sediments: MAT (°C) = −31.664 × MBT m  + 16.252 ( n  = 30). The function uses a modified methylation index of branched tetraethers (MBT m ) that incorporates brGDGT III in the numerator to overcome the lower correlation found between our larger dataset and the unmodified MBT which had been used for previous calibrations. Calibrations combining the cyclization index of branched tetraethers (CBT) and the MBT m or using only certain brGDGTs are possible but have limitations. The revised function shows slightly higher correlation with MAT ( R 2  = 0.75) than previous calibrations, which were based on nine sites. The refined calibration function is applied to a ∼16 000-year lake sediment sequence from northern South Island, New Zealand, and yields temperature reconstructions that are consistent with independently derived climate trends from the same sequence.
    Print ISSN: 0267-8179
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1417
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-01-10
    Description: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a cubic ( Ia 3 d ) pore structure are derivatized with light-activated nanoimpellers to control the release of loaded guest molecules under external photo-control. The nanoimpellers consist of azobenzene derivatives that are attached to the interiors of the three-dimensional interconnected pores, and undergo photoisomerization that results in dynamic wagging motions of the unbound termini and drives the expulsion of molecules from the pores. Stimulated release experiments monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrate that the nanoimpeller-functionalized MCM-48 particles are able to trap and release both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargo molecules under external photocontrol in aqueous, non-aqueous, and intracellular environments.
    Print ISSN: 0044-2313
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-3749
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-07-22
    Description: Environmental models tend to require increasing computational time and resources as physical process descriptions are improved or new descriptions are incorporated. Many-query applications such as sensitivity analysis or model calibration usually require a large number of model evaluations leading to high computational demand. This often limits the feasibility of rigorous analyses. Here we present a fully automated sequential screening method that selects only informative parameters for a given model output. The method requires a number of model evaluations that is approximately ten times the number of model parameters. It was tested using the mesoscale hydrologic model mHM in three hydrologically unique European river catchments. It identified around 20 informative parameters out of 52, with different informative parameters in each catchment. The screening method was evaluated with subsequent analyses using all 52 as well as only the informative parameters. Subsequent Sobol's global sensitivity analysis led to almost identical results yet required 40\% fewer model evaluations after screening. mHM was calibrated with all and with only informative parameters in the three catchments. Model performances for daily discharge were equally high in both cases with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies above 0.82. Calibration using only the informative parameters needed just one third of the number of model evaluations. The universality of the sequential screening method was demonstrated using several general test functions from the literature. We therefore recommend the use of the computationally inexpensive sequential screening method prior to rigorous analyses on complex environmental models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-04-29
    Description: Global human population growth is associated with many problems, such as food and water provision, political conflicts, spread of diseases and environmental destruction. The mitigation of these problems is mirrored in several global conventions and programs, some of which however are conflicting. Here we discuss the conflicts between biodiversity conservation and disease eradication. Numerous health programs aim at eradicating pathogens, and many focus on the eradication of vectors, such as mosquitos or other parasites. As a case study, we focus on the ‘Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Eradication Campaign’ (PATTEC), which aims at eradicating a pathogen ( Trypanosoma ) as well as its vector, the entire group of tsetse flies (Glossinidae). As the distribution of tsetse flies largely overlaps with the African hotspots of freshwater biodiversity, we argue for a strong consideration of environmental issues when applying vector control measures, especially the aerial applications of insecticides. Furthermore, we want to stimulate discussions on the value of species and whether full eradication of a pathogen or vector is justified at all. Finally, we call for a stronger harmonization of international conventions. Proper environmental impact assessments need to be conducted before control or eradication programmes are carried out to minimize negative effects on biodiversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Print ISSN: 1755-263X
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-263X
    Topics: Biology
    Published by Wiley on behalf of The Society for Conservation Biology.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-05-26
    Description: Using Juno plasma and wave and magnetic observations (JADE and Waves and MAG instruments), the generation mechanism of the Jovian hectometric radio emission is analyzed. It is shown that suitable conditions for the cyclotron maser instability (CMI) are observed in the regions of the radio sources. Pronounced loss cone in the electron distributions are likely the source of free energy for the instability. The theory reveals that sufficient growth rates are obtained from the distribution functions that are measured by the JADE-Electron instrument. The CMI would be driven by upgoing electron populations at 5–10 keV and 10–30° pitch angle, the amplified waves propagating at 82°–87° from the B field, a fraction of a percent above the gyrofrequency. Typical e -folding times of 10 −4  s are obtained, leading to an amplification path of ~1000 km. Overall, this scenario for generation of the Jovian hectometric waves differs significantly from the case of the auroral kilometric radiation at Earth.
    Print ISSN: 0094-8276
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-8007
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: Weather generators are used for spatio-temporal downscaling of climate model outputs (e.g., precipitation and temperature) to investigate the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle. In this study, a multiplicative random cascade model is proposed for the stochastic temporal disaggregation of monthly to daily precipitation fields, which is designed to be applicable to grids of any spatial resolution and extent. The proposed method uses stationary distribution functions that describe the partitioning of precipitation throughout multiple temporal scales (e.g., weekly and bi-weekly scale). Moreover, it explicitly considers the intensity and spatial covariance of precipitation in the disaggregation procedure, but requires no assumption about the temporal relationship and spatial isotropy of precipitation fields. A split sampling test is conducted on a high-resolution (i.e., 4×4 km 2 grid) daily precipitation data set over Germany (≈ 357 000 km 2 ) to assess the performance of the proposed method during future periods. The proposed method has proven to consistently reproduce distinctive location dependent precipitation distribution functions with biases less than 5% during both a calibration and evaluation period. Furthermore, extreme precipitation amounts and the spatial and temporal covariance of the generated fields are comparable to those of the observations. Consequently, the proposed temporal disaggregation approach satisfies the minimum conditions for a precipitation generator aiming at the assessment of hydrological response to climate change at regional and continental scales or for generating seamless predictions of hydrological variables.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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