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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Boulder : The Geological Society of America
    Associated volumes
    Call number: S 90.0095(158)
    In: Special paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 82 S.
    ISBN: 081372158X
    Series Statement: Special paper / Geological Society of America 158
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1996-06-01
    Description: The Sub-Balkan graben system in central Bulgaria forms the present northern boundary of the Aegean extensional region. This east-trending graben system lies along the southern flank of the Stara Planina range and consists mainly of half-grabens. The sedimentary fill in the grabens ranges in age from late Miocene to Recent and records the initiation and evolution of the graben system. The sedimentary fill in the grabens is oldest in the central graben and becomes progressively younger to the west and east, indicating a diachronous development of the grabens. Grabens are formed in the hangingwalls of south-dipping low-angle normal faults which have been displaced by younger higher angle normal faults along the foot of the Stara Planina. Hangingwall rocks have been complexly faulted and rotated such that some graben fill has been rotated down-to-the-north. The Sredna Gora range south of the grabens is part of a complexly faulted and rotated hangingwall block bounded on the south by south-dipping normal faults forming the northern boundary of the Thracian Basin. The Stara Planina range has been formed by uplift and rotation due to footwall unloading along the low-angle normal faults and forms the northern margin of the graben system. Most of the topography of Bulgaria south of the Sub-Balkan graben system is the result of late Miocene to Recent extensional processes linked to the Aegean region that have been superposed on convergent features and earlier extensional features that extend back to late Eocene time.
    Print ISSN: 0950-091X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2117
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1995-06-01
    Description: The geological features now exposed at Mormon Point, Death Valley, reveal processes of extension that continue to be active, but are concealed beneath the east side of Death Valley. Late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks at Mormon Point crop out in the hangingwall of the Mormon Point low-angle normal fault zone, a fault zone that formed within a releasing bend of the oblique-slip (right-normal slip) fault zone along the east side of Death Valley. The late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks were part of the valley when the low-angle fault zone was active, but during late Quaternary time they became part of the Black Mountains block and were uplifted. Rocks and structures exposed at Mormon Point are an example of the types of features developed in a releasing bend along the margins of a major pull-apart structure, and in this example they are very similar to features associated with regional detachment faults. The oldest sedimentary rocks in the hangingwall of the Mormon Point low-angle fault zone dip steeply to moderately east or north-east and were faulted and rotated in an extensional kinematic environment different from that recorded by rocks and structures associated with younger rocks in the hangingwall. Some of the younger parts of the late Cenozoic sedimentary rocks were deposited, faulted and rotated during movement on the Mormon Point low-angle normal fault. Progressively, strata are less faulted and less rotated. The Mormon Point low-angle normal fault has an irregular fault surface whose segments define intersections that plunge 18°-30°, N10°-40°W, with a maximum of 22°, N22°W that we interpret to be the general direction of slip. Thus, even though Death Valley trends north, movement on the faults responsible for its formation was at least locally north-northwest. Gouge and disrupted conglomerates along the faults are interpreted to have formed either as adjustments to accommodate space problems at the corners of blocks or along faults that bounded blocks during their displacement and rotation. The younger units of the late Cenozoic sedimentary rock sequence and the geomorphic surfaces developed on them are rarely faulted, not rotated, and overlap the Mormon Point low-angle faults. Active faults cut Holocene alluvium north of the late Cenozoic rocks and form the present boundary between Mormon Point and the Black Mountains. The distribution of active faults defines a releasing bend that mimics the older releasing bend formed by the Mormon Point low-angle fault zone. Rocks and structures similar to those exposed above the Mormon Point low-angle fault zone are probably forming today beneath the east side of Death Valley north-west of Mormon Point. © 1995 Blackwell Science Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0950-091X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2117
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1996-06-01
    Description: The Stara Planina is an E-W-trending range within the Balkan belt in central Bulgaria. This topographically high mountain range was the site of Mesozoic through early Cenozoic thrusting and convergence, and its high topography is generally thought to have resulted from crustal shortening associated with those events. However, uplift of this belt appears to be much younger than the age of thrusting and correlates instead with the age of Pliocene-Quaternary normal faulting along the southern side of the range. Flexural modelling indicates the morphology of the range is consistent with flexural uplift of footwall rocks during Pliocene-Quaternary displacement on S-dipping normal faults bounding the south side of the mountains, provided that the effective elastic plate thickness of 12 km under the Moesian platform is reduced to about 3 km under the Stara Planina. This small value of elastic plate thickness under the Stara Planina is similar to values observed in the Basin and Range Province of the western United States, and suggests that weakening of the lithosphere is due to heating of the lithosphere during extension, perhaps to the point that large-scale flow of material is possible within the lower crust. Because weakening is observed to affect the Moesian lithosphere for ≈10 km beyond (north of) the surface expression of extension, this study suggests that processes within the uppermost mantle, such as convection, play an active role in the extension process. The results of this study also suggest that much of the topographic relief in thrust belts where convergence is accompanied by coeval extension in the upper plate (or 'back arc'), such as in the Apennines, may be a flexural response to unloading during normal faulting, rather than a direct response to crustal shortening in the thrust belt.
    Print ISSN: 0950-091X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2117
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
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