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  • Wiley  (9)
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)  (2)
  • Oxford University Press  (2)
  • Nürnberg: Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB)  (1)
  • 2010-2014  (14)
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-12-06
    Description: Eine beträchtliche Zahl gerade unter den älteren Arbeitslosen weist vielfältige Vermittlungshemmnisse auf. Ihre Integration in Beschäftigung stellt eine Herausforderung für die Arbeitsmarktpolitik dar. Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht stellt Ergebnisse eines Programms für ältere besonders arbeitsmarktferne ALG-II-Beziehende vor, das innerhalb des Bundesprogramms Perspektive 50plus angesiedelt ist. In diesem Teilprogramm unter der Bezeichnung Impuls 50plus werden Teilnehmende bis zu 36 Monate intensiver gefördert als dies in der Regelförderung möglich ist. Am Ziel einer Integration in ungeförderte Beschäftigung wurde mit Impuls 50plus festgehalten, die Ziele der sozialen Teilhabe und der Steigerung bzw. Wiederherstellung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit gegenüber der Regelförderung jedoch aufgewertet. Charakteristisch waren zudem große Spielräume für die lokalen Arbeitsmarktdienstleister bei der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus. Untersucht wurde der Zusammenhang von regionalen Strukturen und Strategien der Umsetzung von Impuls 50plus und den Erfolgen bei der Aktivierung und der Integration der Teilnehmenden: Welche Elemente der regionalen Umsetzung sind bei der Aktivierung und Integration der Zielgruppe besonders erfolgsträchtig? Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Stabilisierung bzw. Erhöhung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit und die Integration in Beschäftigung keine gegensätzlichen Ziele sind. Gerade in Grundsicherungsstellen mit jenen Umsetzungsvarianten, die die Förderung der Beschäftigungsfähigkeit, der sozialen Stabilisierung und gesellschaftlichen Teilhabe betonen, ist die Integrationswahrscheinlichkeit höher als in Grundsicherungsstellen mit Umsetzungsvarianten, die auf gesellschaftliche Teilhabe weniger Wert legen und deutlicher Erwerbsintegration anstreben. Die Ergebnisse zeigen darüber hinaus, dass Arbeitsmarktdienstleister eine Tendenz zum Creaming aufweisen, die durch klare Vorgaben zur Definition des förderfähigen Personenkreises und zur Vergütung der Arbeitsmarktdienstleister begrenzt, aber nicht vollständig eliminiert werden kann.
    Description: A considerable number of people, particularly the older unemployed, exhibit a variety of barriers to placement. Integrating them into employment constitutes a challenge for labor market policy. The current research report presents the results of a program aimed at older persons receiving means-tested unemployment benefit (ALG II) who have multiple placement obstacles; it is located within the Federal Program "Perspektive 50plus" (Perspectives 50-plus). In the sub-program, entitled "Impuls 50plus" (Impulse 50-plus), the participants are supported in a more intensive way for up to 36 months than is possible via standard support. While with Impulse 50-plus the aim of integration into unsubsidized employment has been retained, more emphasis has been placed - in contrast to regular support - on the goals of social inclusion as well as enhancement and/or reconstitution of employability. What is also characteristic is the greater discretion enjoyed by local labor market service providers in implementing Impulse 50-plus. The research program has examined the connection between regional structures and strategies in implementing Impulse 50-plus, along with the successes achieved in activating and integrating those taking part: What elements of regional implementation are particularly likely to succeed in activating and integrating the target group? The results show that the stabilization and/or the enhancement of employability and integration into employment are not opposing goals. Particularly in job centers with implementation variants emphasizing the support of employability, social stabilization and inclusion in society, the likelihood of integration is higher than in job centers with implementation variants that lay less priority on social inclusion and strive more clearly towards integration into employment. In addition, the results show that labor market service providers have a tendency towards 'creaming' which can be partially limited by clear specifications regarding the definition of the circle of persons eligible for support and the way the labor market service providers are remunerated, but cannot be eliminated completely.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-16
    Description: The nuclear positioning of mammalian genes often correlates with their functional state. For instance, the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene associates with the nuclear periphery in its inactive state, but occupies interior positions when active. It is not understood how nuclear gene positioning is determined. Here, we investigated trichostatin A (TSA)-induced repositioning of CFTR in order to address molecular mechanisms controlling gene positioning. Treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA induced increased histone acetylation and CFTR repositioning towards the interior within 20 minutes. When CFTR localized in the nuclear interior (either after TSA treatment or when the gene was active) consistent histone H3 hyperacetylation was observed at a CTCF site close to the CFTR promoter. Knockdown experiments revealed that CTCF was essential for perinuclear CFTR positioning and both, CTCF knockdown as well as TSA treatment had similar and CFTR-specific effects on radial positioning. Furthermore, knockdown experiments revealed that also A-type lamins were required for the perinuclear positioning of CFTR. Together, the results showed that CTCF, A-type lamins and an active HDAC were essential for perinuclear positioning of CFTR and these components acted on a CTCF site adjacent to the CFTR promoter. The results are consistent with the idea that CTCF bound close to the CFTR promoter, A-type lamins and an active HDAC form a complex at the nuclear periphery, which becomes disrupted upon inhibition of the HDAC, leading to the observed release of CFTR. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Electronic ISSN: 0091-7419
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Published by Wiley
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-01-27
    Description: The optical and resonance Raman spectra of the 2,2′: 6′,2″:6″,6-trioxytriphenyl-amine cation are measured and interpreted. This molecule contains two simultaneous types of coupling between three chromophores and two types of bridging atoms. The first and conventional coupling involves a single nitrogen bridge that couples all three aryl groups. The second is provided by the three oxygen atoms, each of which bridges two adjacent aryl groups. There are two bands in the visible region of the optical absorption spectrum; their assignment and the interpretation of the contributing orbitals and electronic states are described in terms of the neighboring orbital model that explains the effects of the two types of coupling. The bonding changes that take place in the excited electronic states are probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy intensities and analyzed using the time-dependent theory of resonance Raman spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum was fit using the measured vibrational frequencies and excited state distortions. The distortions correlate well with the bonding changes predicted by the neighboring orbital model. The resonance Raman data and neighboring orbital model analysis reveal that the two optical absorption bands correspond to charge transfers from aryl groups with different nodal structures in their pi orbitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The three-chromophore cation (left) has a symmetric charge distribution in its ground state and three equivalent charge-bearing units in its lowest excited state. Coupling between the three units occurs through the central nitrogen and pair-wise through the oxygen. The effects of the coupling on the electronic and resonance Raman spectra are interpreted using the neighboring orbital model.
    Print ISSN: 0894-3230
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1395
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-04-15
    Description: The optical and resonance Raman spectra of the 2,2′: 6′,2″:6″,6-trioxytriphenyl-amine cation are measured and interpreted. This molecule contains two simultaneous types of coupling between three chromophores and two types of bridging atoms. The first and conventional coupling involves a single nitrogen bridge that couples all three aryl groups. The second is provided by the three oxygen atoms, each of which bridges two adjacent aryl groups. There are two bands in the visible region of the optical absorption spectrum; their assignment and the interpretation of the contributing orbitals and electronic states are described in terms of the neighboring orbital model that explains the effects of the two types of coupling. The bonding changes that take place in the excited electronic states are probed by resonance Raman spectroscopy intensities and analyzed using the time-dependent theory of resonance Raman spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectrum was fit using the measured vibrational frequencies and excited state distortions. The distortions correlate well with the bonding changes predicted by the neighboring orbital model. The resonance Raman data and neighboring orbital model analysis reveal that the two optical absorption bands correspond to charge transfers from aryl groups with different nodal structures in their pi orbitals. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The three-chromophore cation (left) has a symmetric charge distribution in its ground state and three equivalent charge-bearing units in its lowest excited state. Coupling between the three units occurs through the central nitrogen and pair-wise through the oxygen. The effects of the coupling on the electronic and resonance Raman spectra are interpreted using the neighboring orbital model.
    Print ISSN: 0894-3230
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1395
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Published by Wiley
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-10-10
    Description: Weather generators are used for spatio-temporal downscaling of climate model outputs (e.g., precipitation and temperature) to investigate the impact of climate change on the hydrological cycle. In this study, a multiplicative random cascade model is proposed for the stochastic temporal disaggregation of monthly to daily precipitation fields, which is designed to be applicable to grids of any spatial resolution and extent. The proposed method uses stationary distribution functions that describe the partitioning of precipitation throughout multiple temporal scales (e.g., weekly and bi-weekly scale). Moreover, it explicitly considers the intensity and spatial covariance of precipitation in the disaggregation procedure, but requires no assumption about the temporal relationship and spatial isotropy of precipitation fields. A split sampling test is conducted on a high-resolution (i.e., 4×4 km 2 grid) daily precipitation data set over Germany (≈ 357 000 km 2 ) to assess the performance of the proposed method during future periods. The proposed method has proven to consistently reproduce distinctive location dependent precipitation distribution functions with biases less than 5% during both a calibration and evaluation period. Furthermore, extreme precipitation amounts and the spatial and temporal covariance of the generated fields are comparable to those of the observations. Consequently, the proposed temporal disaggregation approach satisfies the minimum conditions for a precipitation generator aiming at the assessment of hydrological response to climate change at regional and continental scales or for generating seamless predictions of hydrological variables.
    Print ISSN: 0043-1397
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-7973
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-04-03
    Description: When an accretion disc falls prey to the runaway instability, a large portion of its mass is devoured by the black hole within a few dynamical times. Despite decades of effort, it is still unclear under what conditions such an instability can occur. The technically most advanced relativistic simulations to date were unable to find a clear sign for the onset of the instability. In this work, we present three-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of accretion discs around black holes in dynamical space–time. We focus on the configurations that are expected to be particularly prone to the development of this instability. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the fully self-consistent general relativistic evolution does indeed produce a runaway instability.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-01-10
    Description: Mesoporous silica nanoparticles with a cubic ( Ia 3 d ) pore structure are derivatized with light-activated nanoimpellers to control the release of loaded guest molecules under external photo-control. The nanoimpellers consist of azobenzene derivatives that are attached to the interiors of the three-dimensional interconnected pores, and undergo photoisomerization that results in dynamic wagging motions of the unbound termini and drives the expulsion of molecules from the pores. Stimulated release experiments monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrate that the nanoimpeller-functionalized MCM-48 particles are able to trap and release both hydrophilic and hydrophobic cargo molecules under external photocontrol in aqueous, non-aqueous, and intracellular environments.
    Print ISSN: 0044-2313
    Electronic ISSN: 1521-3749
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Published by Wiley
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-03-26
    Description: 〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Bolon, Brad -- Altrock, Bruce -- Barthold, Stephen W -- Baumgarth, Nicole -- Besselsen, David -- Boivin, Gregory -- Boyd, Kelli L -- Brayton, Cory -- Cardiff, Robert D -- Couto, Suzana -- Eaton, Kathryn A -- Foreman, Oded -- Griffey, Stephen M -- La Perle, Krista -- Lairmore, Michael D -- Liu, Chen -- Meyerholz, David K -- Nikitin, Alexander Yu -- Schoeb, Trenton R -- Schwahn, Denise -- Sellers, Rani S -- Sundberg, John P -- Tolwani, Ravi -- Valli, Victor E -- Zink, M Christine -- U01 CA141582/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2011 Mar 25;331(6024):1516-7. doi: 10.1126/science.331.6024.1516-b.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21436422" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/*organization & administration ; Translational Medical Research/*organization & administration ; United States
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-03-24
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 10
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