The nuclear positioning of mammalian genes often correlates with their functional state. For instance, the human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene associates with the nuclear periphery in its inactive state, but occupies interior positions when active. It is not understood how nuclear gene positioning is determined. Here, we investigated trichostatin A (TSA)-induced repositioning of CFTR in order to address molecular mechanisms controlling gene positioning. Treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor TSA induced increased histone acetylation and CFTR repositioning towards the interior within 20 minutes. When CFTR localized in the nuclear interior (either after TSA treatment or when the gene was active) consistent histone H3 hyperacetylation was observed at a CTCF site close to the CFTR promoter. Knockdown experiments revealed that CTCF was essential for perinuclear CFTR positioning and both, CTCF knockdown as well as TSA treatment had similar and CFTR-specific effects on radial positioning. Furthermore, knockdown experiments revealed that also A-type lamins were required for the perinuclear positioning of CFTR. Together, the results showed that CTCF, A-type lamins and an active HDAC were essential for perinuclear positioning of CFTR and these components acted on a CTCF site adjacent to the CFTR promoter. The results are consistent with the idea that CTCF bound close to the CFTR promoter, A-type lamins and an active HDAC form a complex at the nuclear periphery, which becomes disrupted upon inhibition of the HDAC, leading to the observed release of CFTR. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chemistry and Pharmacology