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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-01
    Description: Volcanic rocks erupted during the January 2011 - April 2013 paroxysmal sequence at Mt. Etna volcano have been investigated through in situ microanalysis of mineral phases and whole rock geochemistry. These products have been also considered within the framework of the post-2001 record, evidencing that magmas feeding the 2011–2013 paroxysmal activity inherited deep signature comparable to that of the 2007–2009 volcanic rocks for what concerns their trace element concentration. Analysis performed on plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, which are sensitive to differentiation processes, show respectively fluctuations of the An, Mg# and Fo contents during the considered period. Also major and trace elements measured on the whole rock provide evidence of the evolutionary degree variations through time. Simulations by MELTS at fixed chemical-physical parameters allowed the definition of feeding system dynamics controlling the geochemical variability of magmas during the 2011–2013 period. Specifically, compositional changes have been interpreted as due to superimposition of fractional crystallization and mixing in variable proportions with more basic magma ascending from intermediate to shallower levels of the plumbing system. Composition of the recharging end-member is compatible with that of the most basic magmas emitted during the 2007 and the early paroxysmal eruptions of 2012. Analysis of the erupted volumes of magma combined with its petrologic evolution through time support the idea that large volumes of magma are continuously intruded and stored in the intermediate plumbing system after major recharging phases in the deepest levels of it. Transient recharge from the intermediate to the shallow levels is then responsible for the paroxysmal eruptions. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Wien
    Print ISSN: 0930-0708
    Electronic ISSN: 1438-1168
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-04-01
    Description: Regions in the Gulf of Mexico are determined based on the statistical behavior of the long-term monthly means of chlorophyll- a concentration from SeaWiFS satellite estimations. An analysis based on the four largest modes of an empirical orthogonal decomposition, which account for 84.9% of the variance, results in nine spatial patterns with different statistical behavior representing 14 connected regions. The time evolution (or principal component) of the first two modes resemble the annual cycle, but each one with a different phase; the third mode represents a semiannual period and the fourth mode shows three maxima and minima. A map of the resulting regions is obtained and the oceanographic processes taking place in each region are discussed. The largest region covers most of the deep Gulf and the continental slope. Other regions in the deep Gulf are located southeast of the Mississippi River mouth and off-shelf of southern Texas and Tabasco, all associated with seasonal offshore cross-shelf transports. The shelves are associated with specific regions, but in wide shelves the inner and outer continental platforms are separated. Among the causes that determine different regions are topographic characteristics and the seasonal variability of physical processes, mainly entrainment caused by heat and momentum fluxes, upwelling, river plumes, and cross-shelf transports associated with the convergence of the along-coast currents. ©2010 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1616-7341
    Electronic ISSN: 1616-7228
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-12-01
    Description: We present a synoptic, participatory vulnerability assessment tool to help identify the likely impacts of climate change and human activity in coastal areas and begin discussions among stakeholders on the coping and adaptation measures necessary to minimize these impacts. Vulnerability assessment tools are most needed in the tropical Indo-Pacific, where burgeoning populations and inequitable economic growth place even greater burdens on natural resources and support ecosystems. The Integrated Coastal Sensitivity, Exposure, and Adaptive Capacity for Climate Change (I-C-SEA Change) tool is built around a series of scoring rubrics to guide non-specialists in assigning scores to the sensitivity and adaptive capacity components of vulnerability, particularly for coral reef, seagrass, and mangrove habitats, along with fisheries and coastal integrity. These scores are then weighed against threat or exposure to climate-related impacts such as marine flooding and erosion. The tool provides opportunities for learning by engaging more stakeholders in participatory planning and group decision-making. It also allows for information to be collated and processed during a “town-hall” meeting, facilitating further discussion, data validation, and even interactive scenario building. ©2015 Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
    Print ISSN: 0044-7447
    Electronic ISSN: 1654-7209
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2009-02-01
    Description: At times when attention on climate issues is strongly focused on the assessment of potential impacts of future climate change due to the intensification of the planetary greenhouse effect, it is perhaps pertinent to look back and explore the consequences of past climate variability. In this article we examine a large disruption in global climate that occurred during 1877–1878, when human influence was negligible. The mechanisms explaining this global disturbance are not well established, but there is considerable evidence that the major El Niño episode that started by the end of 1876 and peaked during the 1877–1878 boreal winter contributed significantly to it. The associated regional climate anomalies were extremely destructive, particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, where starvation due to intense droughts in Asia, South-East Asia and Africa took the lives of more than 20 million people. In South America regional precipitation anomalies were typical of El Niño events, with rainfall deficit and droughts in the northern portion of the continent as well as in northeast Brazil and the highlands of the central Andes (Altiplano). In contrast, anomalously intense rainfall and flooding episodes were reported for the coastal areas of southern Ecuador and Northern Perú, as well as along the extratropical West coast of the continent (central Chile, 30° S–40° S), and in the Paraná basin in the southeast region. By far the most devastating impacts in terms of suffering and loss of life occurred in the semiarid region of northeast Brazil where several hundreds of thousands of people died from starvation and diseases during the drought that started in 1877. ©2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2004-09-01
    Description: The use of documentary sources has proven useful to identify extremeclimatic events and their variability during the pre-instrumental period. Theaim of this paper is to describe iceberg sightings in the Western SouthAtlantic during the second half of the 18th century, as recorded from Spanishlogbooks. A total of five sightings have been found, two corresponding toisolated bergs and three to outbreaks. The relevance of these results istwofold: they are the first documented iceberg sightings to date and, aboveall, they correspond to very unusual episodes, characterized by a high numberof high-sized bergs and by the relatively low latitude of their location. Itis suggested that they could be associated to cold episodes in Antarctica. ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2005-12-01
    Description: The isolation systems are usually made of rubber bearings that are sometimes coupled in hybrid combination with frictional devices; this is the case of an in-site experimental campaign, performed on a base isolated apartment building in Rapolla (south of Italy). Several dropout tests at initial displacements up to 17cm allowed to obtain in-site information on the true dynamic response of the isolation system (building and isolators). The tests carried out allow a comparison between the free vibration responses of a building, isolated by using a 28 HDRB isolation system only, or an HDRB-Friction Sliders Hybrid one. The paper highlights the main differences of the response in the superstructure (the structure over the isolation system) obtained by using only HDRB isolation system, or the Hybrid one (HDRB and Friction Sliders in parallel system). Analysis and comparisons of experimental data, show the influence of nonlinearities on structural higher modes amplification, especially observed by using the higher nonlinear Hybrid isolation system. Tests results confirm that, in the case of a regular superstructure, like the Rapolla building, the isolation system nonlinearities influence the structural response. ©2005 Springer
    Print ISSN: 1570-761X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1456
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-06-01
    Description: Climate is one of the most of influential natural factors on society and economy. One of the consequences of climate anomalies is the emergence of diseases and epidemics, especially in agrarian societies. The current concern with long-term climate change and its measurable consequences on health and disease gives new relevance to the question of how agrarian societies fared during sharp droughts and other climatic hardships, especially those subject to the disruptive processes of colonization. Not many studies have been done in Latin America that relate climate, epidemics and mortality from a historical perspective. This paper explores the association between climatic anomalies, epidemic events, and native demographic decline in the Alto Peru region in the highlands of Bolivia, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Studies of historic climatology indicate that adverse climate events became more frequent in the southern areas of South America during these centuries. There were extreme oscillations in precipitation, especially beginning in the 1750’s which significantly impacted the largest group of people in late colonial Alto Peru: the indigenous population, whose vulnerability increased in face of local climatic anomalies and the resulting epidemiological risk. Both the quantitative and the qualitative analysis show associations between climatic and epidemic events. ©2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-07-01
    Description: We describe analytical details and uncertainty evaluation of a simple technique for the measurement of the carbon isotopic composition of CO2 in volcanic plumes. Data collected at Solfatara and Vulcano, where plumes are fed by fumaroles which are accessible for direct sampling, were first used to validate the technique. For both volcanoes, the plume-derived carbon isotopic compositions are in good agreement with the fumarolic compositions, thus providing confidence on the method, and allowing its application at volcanoes where the volcanic component is inaccessible to direct sampling. As a notable example, we applied the same method to Mount Etna where we derived a δ13C of volcanic CO2 between −0.9 ± 0.27‰ and −1.41 ± 0.27‰ (Bocca Nuova and Voragine craters). The comparison of our measurements to data reported in previous work highlights a temporal trend of systematic increase of δ13C values of Etna CO2 from ~ −4‰, in the 1970’s and the 1980’s, to ~ −1‰ at the present time (2009). This shift toward more positive δ13C values matches a concurrent change in magma composition and an increase in the eruption frequency and energy. We discuss such variations in terms of two possible processes: magma carbonate assimilation and carbon isotopic fractionation due to magma degassing along the Etna plumbing system. Finally, our results highlight potential of systematic measurements of the carbon isotopic composition of the CO2 emitted by volcanic plumes for a better understanding of volcanic processes and for improved surveillance of volcanic activity. ©2010 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2007-07-01
    Description: Several studies show that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an important factor in determining interannual rainfall variability in South America. This signal is detected in the region including Northeastern Argentina, Uruguay and part of southern Brazil, in the form of excessive rains and big floods in the regional rivers. To check that this relationship was similar in the past the objectives of this paper were to construct a time series of large floods in the Paraná River region from documentary records, during the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, and to evaluate the relationship between that historical record of extreme floods, the ENSO documentary evidence (Ortlieb, The Documented Historical Record of El Niño Events in Perú: An Update of the Quinn Record (Ortlieb, sixteenth through nineteenth centuries, Diaz and Markgraf, (eds.), El Niño and the southern oscillation. Multiscale variability and global and regional Impacts . Cambridge University Press, pp. 207–295, 2001 ; Quinn and Neal, The historical record of El Niño events, Bradley and Jones (eds.), Climate since a.d. 1500 , Routledges, pp. 623–648, 1992 ) and the temperature index of the Pacific Ocean (Mann ME et al., Global temperature patterns in past centuries: an interactive presentation, IGBP pages/world data center for paleoclimatology data contribution series #2000-075. NOAA/NGDC Paleoclimatology Program, Boulder CO, USA, 2000 ). Considering that the period 1904–2000, where 11 out of 16 floods occurred during El Niño events, it can be concluded that the proportion of years with exceptional flow volume in the Paraná River in years with El Niño events in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was relatively lower than that of the twentieth century. The reason for this difference is discussed. ©2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-05-01
    Description: PurposeIn this study, we quantified soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and analyzed their relationship with biophysical factors and soil properties.Materials and methodsThe study region was Veracruz State, located in the eastern part of Mexico, covering an area of 72,410 km2. A soil database that contains physicochemical analyses of soil horizons such as carbon concentration data was the source of information used in this study. The database consisted of 163 soil profiles representing 464 genetic horizons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the effect of each factor (climate, altitude, slope) on SOC stock to 0.50 m depth and to assess differences in the distribution of SOC stock in terms of soil depth (0.0–0.20, 0.20–0.40, 0.40–0.60, 0.60–0.80, 0.80–1.0 m) and land use. In order to compute the spatial distribution of SOC stock to 0.50 m depth based on the soil sampling location, the kriging method was used.Results and discussionResults indicated that SOC stock (0.50 m depth) ranged between 0.44 and 41.2 kg C m−2. Regression analysis showed that SOC stocks (0.50 m depth) are negatively correlated with temperature ( r  = −0.38; P  〈 0.001) and positively correlated with altitude ( r  = 0.40; P  〈 0.001) and slope ( r  = 0.40; P  〈 0.001). In addition, by multiple regression, temperature combined with precipitation explained more SOC stock variations ( r  = 0.43; P  〈 0.001) than the regression model with precipitation ( r  = 0.13; P  = 0.16) alone. Also, slope combined with temperature and precipitation explained more SOC stock variations ( r  = 0.46; P  〈 0.001) than the regression model with slope alone. Forest lands, grasslands, and croplands have higher SOC stocks in the 0.0–0.20-m soil layer than in deeper layers. On average, forest lands, grasslands, croplands, and other lands (wetland and dunes) had a SOC stock of 13.6, 14.6, 15.1, and 8.5 kg C m−2 at 1 m depth, respectively. Soil color correlated (−0.25 ≤ r ≤ −0.89) with SOC content.ConclusionsOverall, these results indicate the influence of major interactions between biophysical factors and SOC stocks. This research indicated that SOC stock decreased with soil depth, but with slight variations depending on land use. Thus, there remains a need for more SOC data that include an improved distribution of soil sampling points in order to entirely understand the contributions of biophysical factors to SOC stocks in Veracruz State. ©2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 1439-0108
    Electronic ISSN: 1614-7480
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
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