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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-02-27
    Description: Erosional processes (natural or anthropogenic) may partly destroy the relatively small-sized volcanic edifices characteristic of monogenetic volcanic zones, leaving their internal structure well exposed. Nevertheless, the study of these outcrops may be extremely challenging due to restricted accessibility or safety issues. Digital representations of the outcrop surface have been lately used to overcome such difficulties. Data acquired with terrestrial laser scanning instruments using Light Detection and Ranging technology enables the construction of such digital outcrops. The obtained high-precision 3-D terrain models are of greater coverage and accuracy than conventional methods and, when taken at different times, allow description of geological processes in time and space. Despite its intrinsic advantages and the proven satisfactory results, this technique has been little applied in volcanology-related studies. Here, we want to introduce it to the volcanological community together with a new and user-friendly digital outcrop analysis methodology for inexperienced users. This tool may be useful, not only for volcano monitoring purposes, but also to describe the internal structure of exposed volcanic edifices or to estimate outcrop erosion rates that may be helpful in terms of hazard assessment or preservation of volcanic landscapes. We apply it to the Croscat volcano, a monogenetic cone in the La Garrotxa Volcanic Field (Catalan Volcanic Zone, NE Spain), quarrying of which leads to a perfect view of its interior but restricts access to its uppermost parts. Croscat is additionally one of the most emblematic symbols of the La Garrotxa Volcanic Field Natural Park, and its preservation is a main target of the park administration. ©2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0258-8900
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0819
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1980-10-01
    Description: кРАткОЕ сОДЕРжАНИЕБОлЕЕ 100 ОсАДОЧНых сВИт И гРУпп МЕжОжОИскИх ЁпИкОНтИНЕНтАльНых ДО кОНтИНЕНтАльНых Отл ОжЕНИИ „Oriente Andine“ сЕВЕРНых АНД (пЕРУ, ЁкВАДОР И кОлУМБИь) пОДРАжДЕлЕ Ны НА 6 сМЕНьУЩИх ДРУг Д РУгА БОльшИх ФАцИАльНых ЕДИНИц. пРИ ЁтОМ УстАН ОВлЕНО БОльшОЕ схОДс тВО В пАлОЕгЕОгРАФИЧЕскО М РАжВИтИИ ВсЕгО РЕгИОНА, хОть гЕ ОлОгИЧЕскОЕ стРОЕНИ Е жАпАДНых И пРИБРЕжНых кОРДИлыЕР НА сЕВЕРЕ (к ОлУМБИь, ЁкВАДОР) ОтлИ ЧАУтсь От тАкОВОгО НА УгЕ (пЕРУ, ЧИлЕ).ResumenMás de 100 grupos y formaciones sedimentarios des »Oriente Andino« (sensu H. Bürgl ) en los Andes septentrionales (PerÚ, Ecuador, Colombia) están asociados a 6 unidades magnafaciales que se suceden cronológicamente. Este »Oriente Andino« abarca las cuencas sedimentarias de tipo epicontiental a continental de la época mesozoica. Se bosqueja así claramente, en las áreas mencionadas, una evolución paleogeográfica-sedimentológica bastante uniforme, aunque las estructuras geológicas de las Cordilleras Occidentales (o Costeras, respectivamente) de la parte septentrional (Colombia, Ecuador) se diferencian fundamentalmente de las del Sur (PerÚ, Chile).Over 100 sedimentary formations and groups are known from the epicontinental to continental Mesozoic (“Oriente Andino” sensu H. Bürgl ) in the Andean region of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia. These lithostratigraphic (or facial) complexes are attached to 6 magnafacies-units which follow each other chronologically, thereby clearly evidencing a uniform paleogeographic-sedimentary development in the mentioned areas, although the geological structure of the Western respectively Coastal Cordilleras of the North (Colombia, Ecuador) is fundamentally different from that of the Southern ones (Peru, Chile).ZusammenfassungDie weit über 100 sedimentären Formationen und Gruppen im mesozoischen epikontinentalen bis kontinentalen „Oriente Andino“ der nördlichen Anden (Peru, Ekuador und Kolumbien) werden 6 zeitlich aufeinanderfolgenden Magnafazies-Einheiten zugeordnet. Dabei zeichnet sich deutlich eine einheitliche paläogeographisch-sedimentäre Entwicklung in den genannten Räumen ab, obwohl sich der geologische Bau der andinen West- bzw. Küstenkordilleren im Norden (Kolumbien, Ekuador) grundsätzlich vom Süden (Peru, Chile) unterscheidet. ©1980 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 1967-12-01
    Description: Die fazielle Entwicklung des subbetischen Juras weist trotz Differenzierung im einzelnen viele gemeinsame Züge auf. Grundsätzlich ist aber zwischen einer „Neritischen Kalk-Fazies“ einer „Knollenkalk-Fazies“ und einer „Kalk-MergelFazies“ zu unterscheiden. Auf die stratigraphische Verbreitung der Roten Knollenkalke und die „Limonitkrusten“ als Äquivalente der keltiberischen „Grenzoolithe“ wird näher eingegangen, das Auftreten von Nucleata, Pygope und Posidonia im subbetisehen Jura besprochen. Sowohl zum benachbarten keltiberischen Jura als auch zum west- und südalpinen Jura sind mehr oder weniger deutliche Beziehungen vorhanden.RésuméLes faciès dans le Jurassique subbétique montrent, malgré des différences dans les détails beaucoup de traits communs. Il faut cependant distinguer entre le « faciès des calcaires néritiques», le « faciès des calcaires noduleux» et le « faciès des marnes et calcaires». La distribution stratigraphique des calcaires noduleux rouges et des « croutes de limonite», qui représentent les équivalents des «oolites limitrophes» celtibériques, est discuté. On commente alors l'existence de Nucleata, Pygope et Posidonia dans le Subbétique. On peut constater des relations plus ou moins nettes non seulement avec le Jurassique celtibérique, mais aussi, avant tout, avec le Jurassique alpin occidental et méridional.The facies development of the Jurassic in the subbetic realm of Spain shows many common features on the whole in spite of differences in detail. “Neritic limestone facies“ may be distinguished from “Nodular limestone facies“ and “Limestone-marl-facies“. This paper deals with the stratigraphie range of red nodular limestones and “Limonite Crusts“ as equivalents of the celtiberic “Boundary Oolites“. The occurrence of Nucleata, Pygope and Posidonia in the Subbetic is discussed. There are certain facies relations to the Jurassic of the adjacent celtiberic area and especially to the Jurassic of the Western and Southern Alps.ResumenLa facies des Jurásico subbético tiene muchos rasgos comúnes, a pesar de diferencias en detalle. Pero en principio se tiene que distinguir entre una «facies nerítica-calcárea», una «facies calcárea-nodulosa» y una «facies calcá rea-margosa». Se menciona la extención estratigráfica de las calizas nodulosas rojas y las «costras de limonita» como equivalentes de las «oolítas limítrofes» celtibéricas. Se discute la existencia de Nucleata, Pygope y Posidonia en el Subbético. Tanto en el Jurásico celtibérico como, sobre todo, en el Jurásico alpino occidental y meridional existen relaciones más o menos distintas.Краткое содержаниеСуббетская Юра, несмо тря на ее дифференциа цию в частностях, имеет в своем фациалньом раз витии много общих чер т. Принципиально следу ет отличать „неритовую известняковую фацию “ и „фацию желвакового известн яка“ от известняково-мерг елевой фации. Подробн о описывается стратиг рафическое распределение красн ых конкреций известн яков и „лимонитовых корок“, являющихся эк вивалентами кельто-и берийских „пограничных оолитов“. Существует связь как с соседней кельто-иберийской Юр ой, так и с западной и юго-альп ийской Юрой. ©1967 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1924-12-01
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 1965-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 1962-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1961-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1978-01-01
    Description: An analytical formulation is developed for the resultant electromagnetic field of an oscillating vertical magnetic dipole located over a thin conductive sheet of infinite extent. The sheet is characterized by a conductivity-thickness product or conductance σ d that may be a function of the horizontal coordinates. The system of integral equations arising in the general formulation is simplified greatly when azimuthal symmetry prevails. Numerical results for a Gaussian variation of σ d in the radial direction are presented for the case of a symmetrically located source. These results are for the fields at the level of the source dipole over the conductive sheet. It is shown that the quadrature response of the sheet is enhanced when there is rapid variation of the conductance. The null in the resultant wave tilt is also found to be shifted toward the direction of increasing conductance. ©1978 Birkhäuser Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1960-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2001-03-08
    Description:  Tree canopy water use and foliage net CO2 uptake (NPP) were simulated for a 31-year-old Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) plantation near Hartheim, in the Upper Rhine Valley, Germany with a mechanistically-based, three-dimensional stand gas-exchange model (STANDFLUX) for a ten-day period during spring 1992. STANDFLUX was formulated to include the effects of penumbra caused by the fine structure of the needles on light distribution within crowns. Good correspondence was found between simulated rates of tree canopy water use when including penumbral effects and eddy-covariance ET and sap flow transpiration measurements. Water use was 8–13% lower and NPP was 10–17% lower in simulations for the ten-day period when penumbral effects were not included. Simulated water use and CO2 uptake were compared with similar outputs from a simplified layer canopy model (including or not including penumbra) which assumed horizontal homogeneity in canopy structure (GAS FLUX). Our results for the Pinus sylvestris stand indicate that penumbral effects were more important than the degree of model simplification with respect to foliage distribution (three-dimensional vs. layered structure) for estimating stand-level fluxes for these pines. Simulated maximum hourly NPP was similar to rates measured for other Pinus sylvestris stands using other methods. Predicted decreases in tree transpiration due to the modelled response of needle gas exchange to increasing vapour-pressure deficit agreed with measured changes in transpiration, and suggested that stomatal response may have been more important than decreasing soil water availability in controlling water flux to the atmosphere during this period. The overall results of the study demonstrate that current approaches in canopy modelling that separate light into sun versus shade intensities can be effective, but must be applied with caution when attempting to predict long-term water and carbon balances of forests. ©2001 Springer-Verlag/Wien
    Print ISSN: 0177-798X
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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