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  • 1
    Publication Date: 1930-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0028-1042
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-1904
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 1996-09-01
    Description: Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43–1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios. ©1996 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-07-01
    Description: Manganoquadratite, ideally AgMnAsS3, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as dark gray, anhedral to subhedral grains up 0.5 mm across, closely associated with alabandite, Mn-rich calcite, Mn-rich sphalerite, proustite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, tennantite, argentotennantite, stannite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S. Manganoquadratite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a reddish-brown streak. It is brittle, the Vickers microhardness (VHN10) is 81 kg/mm2 (range 75–96) (corresponding Mohs hardness of 2–2½). The calculated density is 4.680 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized reflected light, manganoquadratite is moderately bireflectant and very weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a blue gray. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polars, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 29.5, 31.8 (471.1 nm), 28.1, 30.5 (548.3 nm), 27.3, 29.3 (586.6 nm), and 26.0, 28.2 (652.3 nm), respectively.Manganoquadratite is tetragonal, space group P4322, with unit-cell parameters: a = 5.4496(5), c = 32.949(1) Å, V = 978.5(1) Å3, c:a = 6.046, Z = 8. The structure, refined to R1 = 0.0863 for 907 reflections with Fo 〉 4σ(Fo), consists of a stacking along [001] of alabandite-like Mn2S2 layers connected to each to other by a couple of AgAsS2 sheets where As3+ forms typical AsS3 groups, whereas Ag+ cations are fivefold coordinated. The six strongest lines in the observed X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.14 (60) (116), 2.739 (50) (0 0 12), 2.710 (100) (200), 1.927(70) (2 0 12 + 220), 1.645 (25) (3 0 16), and 1.573 (20) (22 12).Electron microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula (on the basis of six atoms) (Ag0.95Cu0.05)∑=1.00 (Mn0.96Pb0.04)∑=1.00(As0.87Sb0.14)∑=1.01S2.99, leading to the simplified formula AgMnAsS3.The name was chosen to indicate the close analogy of the formula and unit-cell dimensions with quadratite, Ag(Cd,Pb)(As,Sb)S3. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA 2011-008.
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-02-01
    Description: Menchettiite, ideally AgPb2.40Mn1.60Sb3As2S12, is a new mineral from the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru. It occurs as black, anhedral to subhedral grains up to 200 µm across, closely associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, and calcite. Menchettiite is opaque with a metallic luster and possesses a black streak. It is brittle, with uneven fracture; the Vickers microhardness (VHN100) is 128 kg/mm2 (range 119–136) (corresponding to a Mohs hardness of 2½–3). The calculated density is 5.146 g/cm3 (on the basis of the empirical formula). In plane-polarized incident light, menchettiite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark gray to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Between crossed polarizers, the mineral is anisotropic, without characteristic rotation tints. Reflectance percentages (Rmin and Rmax) for the four standard COM wavelengths are 33.1, 39.8 (471.1 nm), 31.8, 38.0 (548.3 nm), 30.9, 37.3 (586.6 nm), and 29.0, 35.8 (652.3 nm), respectively.Menchettiite is monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters: a = 19.233(2), b = 12.633(3), c = 8.476(2) Å, ß = 90.08(2)°, V = 2059.4(8) Å3, a: b: c 1.522:1:0.671, Z = 2, and it is twinned on {100}. The crystal structure was refined to R = 0.0903 for 2365 reflections with Fo 〉 4s(Fo) and it resulted to be topologically identical to those of ramdohrite, uchucchacuaite, and fizélyite. The six strongest X-ray powder-diffraction lines [d in Å (I/I0) (hkl)] are: 3.4066 (39) (3¯12), 3.4025 (39) (312), 3.2853 (100) (520), 2.8535 (50) (2¯32), 2.8519 (47) (232), and 2.1190 (33) (004). Electron-microprobe analyses gave the chemical formula Ag1.95Cu0.01Pb4.81Mn3.20Fe0.02Zn0.01Sb6.09As3.94Bi0.01S23.95Se0.01, on the basis of 44 atoms and according to the structure refinement results. Menchettiite can be classified among the Sb-rich members of the lillianite homeotypic series, which are described with the general formula AgxPb3-2xSb2+xS6. Besides the heterovalent substitution 2Pb2+ ? Ag+ + Sb3+ taken into consideration by the above formula, two isovalent substitutions relate menchettiite to the other lillianite homeotypes, i.e., Mn2+ ? Pb2+ and As3+ ? Sb3+. The name is after Silvio Menchetti (1937–), Professor of Mineralogy and Crystallography at the University of Florence. The new mineral and mineral name have been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification, IMA (2011–009).
    Print ISSN: 0003-004X
    Electronic ISSN: 1945-3027
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2002-05-01
    Description: The effect of crystal anisotropy on wetting angles of equilibrium silicate melts on crystal faces of spinel, diopside, enstatite and olivine has been determined experimentally by the sessile melt drop technique. The anisotropy, $${ m ~A}gamma _{{ m SL}} $$ , of solid-liquid interfacial energies (γ_SL(max)–γ_SL(min)) can be related to the wetting angles, ψ, by $${ m ~A}gamma _{{ m SL}} propto left| {cos psi (max ); - cos psi (min )} ight| = Pw_{left( {{ m ilde A}gamma _{{ m SL}} } ight)} $$ . Normalising to the smallest wetting angle gives values of Pw for diopside=0.0728, olivine=0.0574, orthopyroxene=0.0152, and spinel=0.0075. Crystal anisotropy influences grain-scale morphology of small-degree partial melts, permeability and the melt connectivity threshold, φ_C. Results show that, at sufficient melt fractions, diopside should increase permeability in a peridotitic matrix, whereas enstatite should lower it. Despite its low anisotropy, spinel contributes positively to permeability and φ_C because of its high surface energies. These results suggest that harzburgitic mineral matrices typical of the subcratonic mantle should impede the movement of low-degree partial melts, whereas melts should flow more easily through spinel lherzolites. ©2002 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0010-7999
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0967
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2004-07-01
    Description: This paper is concerned with climate change in the region of the Canary Islands and the potential implications for the laurel forests of Tenerife. Frequent orographic cloud formation during the dry season is of vital importance to the altitudinal distribution of the laurel forests, because it maintains a semi-humid environment in the otherwise semi-arid climate of the Canary Islands. The distinctive environmental conditions in conjunction with the location of the Canary Islands on the Northern poleward edge of the Hadley Circulation make these ecosystems potentially highly sensitive to regional changes in climatic conditions. To explore this sensitivity, we first quantify observed trends in humidity and temperature across an altitudinal transect at the base of the Anaga peninsular, and second, analyse the results of three GCM experiments (CGCM1, ECHAM4 and CSIRO) to develop alternative climate change scenarios, and third, use these data to assess likely shifts in the elevational distribution of the laurel forest climate envelope. We report a significant increase in relative humidity and decreases in the diurnal temperature range on Tenerife at altitudes below the trade wind inversion within the last 30 years during the dry season, which suggests an increased occurrence of low-level clouds. There is also partial evidence for a drying trend across the trade wind inversion, which may be linked to an increased subsidence. Overall, the models suggest a downward shift of the area climatically suitable for laurel forests, which may be driven by changes in temperature and moisture supply in the region as well as by larger-scale changes in the atmospheric circulation. Our findings contrast with previously published findings for a tropical montane cloud region, which predict an upward shift of the cloud base. This suggests, following the assumptions inherent in the models applied, that the ecological consequences of climate change for cloud forests may be linked to their relative location in the Hadley Circulation. ©2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers
    Print ISSN: 0165-0009
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1480
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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