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  • 1
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A thick spherical target (R=25 cm) made of gabbro was irradiated isotropically with 1.6 GeV protons at the Saturne cyclotron at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS)/CEN Saclay in order to simulate the interaction of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) protons with meteoroids in space. During a 2 weeks irradiation a proton-dose of 1.32 · 1014 cm−2 was received, which is equivalent to a cosmic-ray exposure age of 1.4 Ma. Production rates were measured by X- and gamma-spectrometry, by low-level counting and by conventional and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Up to now, more than 200 target-product combinations were investigated. Theoretical production rates were derived on the basis of spectra of primary protons, secondary protons and secondary neutrons calculated by Monte Carlo techniques and thin-target cross sections of the underlying nuclear reactions. The model calculations excellently describe the production depth profiles in the artificial meteoroid, if reliable crosss sections are available. The thus validated model calculations allow for the interpretation of cosmogenic nuclide abundances in stony meteorites and lunar samples in terms of their exposure history and of the history of the radiation itself.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Anisotropy spectra of the MOK X-ray transitions have been measured in F-Al, Al-Al and Cl-Al collisions as a function of the projectile energy. The measurements at higher energies indicate a new molecular effect due to transitions from quasicontinuum states to the MO 1s σ-orbitals.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The anisotropies of the MO-2pσ-radiation have been measured for five symmetric systems with a united atom numberZ u between 52 and 94 at beam energies in the range from 7 up to 66 MeV. A comparison with the available theoretical data suggests that the anisotropic part of the 2pσ-radiation is mainly due to transitions from near continuum initial states into the minimum of the molecular 2pσ-orbital.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The dependence of molecular X-ray emission on the azimuthal angle in heavy ion collisions has been measured as a function of the impact parameter in the collision systems F-Al and Cl-Cl at projectile energies of 20 and 48 MeV respectively. The values of the observed azimuthal anisotropies agree with dynamical calculations of molecular orbital X-ray emission, but they are at variance with predictions of the kinematic dipole model.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The spectra ofK x-rays emitted by the target-like reaction products in the deep inelastic collisions 1,160-MeV136Xe+Pb and136Xe+232Th were investigated. Target-like x-ray emission probabilities per projectile-like and per target-like product were determined and compared with theoretical predictions of atomic vacancy production in the higher-Z particle (1s }-vacancy production). It is shown that a large fraction of the x-rays is produced by internal conversion ofγ-rays in the higher-Z reaction product. Measurement of target-like x-rays in coincidence with projectile-like and with target-like reaction products allowed the determination of the average survival probability against fission and of theZ-distribution of the highly excited target-like nuclei as a function of theQ value (total kinetic energy loss). The observed average survival probabilities agree qualitatively with theoretical predictions of Wilcke et al. Nuclearreaction-time effects on the 1s σ-vacancy production in these collisions could not be demonstrated with any certainty.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6079
    Keywords: 34.50.Fa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract K-vacancy production probabilities in elastic 7.5- and 8.6-MeV/a.m.u. U+U collisions are reported for impact parameters less than 15 fm. In 7.5-MeV/a.m.u. U+U collisions the ionization probability rises above the trend indicated by larger impact parameter measurements, increasing to 1.8 vacancies per collision at the smallest impact parameter. The measured probabilities for 8.6-MeV/a.m.u. collisions increase to a maximum value of slightly less than 2 vacancies per collision at the smallest impact parameters. The data is compared to previous results and existing theory.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract Manganese nodules from the Kane Gap (a deep sea channel connecting the Sierra Leone and Gambia Basins off West Africa) were investigated chemically and dated by10Be along cross-sections. Comparing the nodule structure with the stratigraphy of the related sediments, the following conclusions are drawn concerning the sedimentation processes during the last 4 to 6×106 years: The growth of the nodules started about 4 to 4.5 Ma before present during or near to the end of a period of erosion on a fossil-free, probably Miocene sediment. During the first phase of only a few hundred thousandyears, the nodules grew very quickly (7 to 〉18 mm/Ma). Fe-rich hydrogenetic material formed the internal sections of the nodules during this time. Slowing down of the bottom currents, resulting in deposition of thin sediment covers for short intervals, caused the character of the nodules to change to a more diagenetic composition. The growth rates were reduced to about 1 to 2 mm/Ma. The time of slowing is roughly 3 to 4 Ma BP. Probable uncertainties of the dating and growth rates resulting from supposed changes of the10Be supply to the nodules due to variations of the near bottom environment are discussed.
    Abstract: Résumé Le «Kana Gap» est un chenal sous-marin qui relie les bassins de Sierra Leone et de Gambie, au large de l'Afrique occidentale. Des nodules de manganèse, recueillis le long de profils transversaux dans ce chenal, ont fait l'objet d'une étude chimique et d'une détermination d'âge10Be. La comparaison entre la structure des nodules et la stratigraphie des sédiments sous-jacents permet de tirer les conclusions suivantes relatives au processus sédimentaire au cours des 4 à 6 derniers Ma. La croissance des nodules a commencé il y a environ 4 à 4,5 Ma pendant ou juste après un épisode d'érosion sous-marine sur des sédiments non fossilifères, probablement miocènes. Au cours d'une première phase d'une durée de quelques centaines de milliers d'années, la croissance a été très rapide (7 à 〉 18 mm par Ma) avec formation de la partie centrale du nodule, constituée de matière hydrogénée riche en Fe. Ensuite, après ralentissement des courants de fond et dépôt probable d'une mince couche de sédiment, le caractère des nodules a évolué vers une composition plus diagénétique, avec réduction du taux de croissance à 1 à 2 mm par Ma. Le moment de ce changement de régime doit se situer entre 3 et 4 Ma. Des changements dans les conditions de milieu sur le fond de la mer pourraient avoir provoqué une variation de la quantité de10Be apportée aux nodules, d'où résulterait une incertitude sur l'estimation des âges et du taux de croissance; cette question est discutée par les auteurs.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung An Manganknollen aus der Kane-Lücke, dem Verbindungskanal zwischen Sierra Leone Becken und Gambia Becken (vor W-Afrika) wurden entlang Querprofilen durch mehrere Knollen chemische Untersuchungen und10Be Altersbestimmungen durchgeführt. Durch Vergleich des Aufbaus der Knollen mit der Stratigraphie des unterlagernden Sediments werden Rückschlüsse auf Veränderungen des Sedimentationsgeschehens während der letzten 4–6×106 Jahre gezogen. Hiernach begann das Wachstum der Knollen vor maximal 4.5×106 Jahren während oder gegen Ende einer Erosionsphase auf fossilfreiem, vermutlich miozänem Sediment. Während der ersten Phase wuchsen die Knollen über wenige 100000 Jahre sehr schnell (7 bis〉18 mm/106 Jahre). Hierbei schied sich Fe-reiche Knollensubstanz hydrogener Zusammensetzung ab. Nach Verringerung der Strömung und vermutlich zeitweiser Bildung von dünnen Sedimentschleiern änderte sich der Charakter der Knollen zu mehr diagnetischer Zusammensetzung bei wesentlich reduziertem Wachstum (ca. 1 bis 2 mm/106 Jahre). Der Zeitpunkt der Umstellung ist nur sehr grob zu ermitteln, er dürfte etwa zwischen 3 und 4×106 Jahren vor heute liegen. Eventuelle Unsicherheiten bei der Datierung und den Wachstumsraten, die möglicherweise aus milieubedingten Änderungen in der10Be Versorgung der Knollen resultieren, werden diskutiert.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract In this paper we present accelerator radiocarbon measurements on hand picked benthic and planktonic foraminifera separated from two deep sea cores raised from the South China Sea. From the benthic-planktonic age differences we are able to place limits on the extent to which the ventilation rate of the deep Pacific Ocean has changed over the last 12000 years. While much work remains to be done before any definitive answers for the global oceans can be given, these results on cores with sedimentation rates suitably high to avoid major corrections for bioturbation effects suggest that the ventilation rate of the deep Pacific Ocean has remained nearly the same throughout Holocene time. Further, there is no suggestion that the rate was slower during the period of major glacial retreat. These results confirm that the changes in atmospheric14C/C ratio over the last 10000 years owe their origin to radiocarbon production rate changes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9039
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Summary For the reaction Bi209 (n, γ) Bi210, theQ-value as determined from a suitablereaaction chain exceeds that indicated by the γ-line of maximum energy as measured with a magnetic pair spectrometer. Coincidence investigations have therefore been undertaken to search for γ-γ-cascades: transitions for 117, 165, 275, 396 and 507 keV have been detected in coincidence with the lines at 4 MeV. The intensities of the former lines have been elucidated and are discussed. The most probable value for the neutron binding energy is thereby indicated to be 4·56 MeV.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Doppler shift and the anisotropy of the MO X-rays above the separated-atomK-lines have been measured in208Pb+208Pb and209Bi+209Bi collisions at beam energies between 4.2 and 4.8 MeV/u. The Doppler shift is found to be consistent with a source moving with 90% of the center of mass velocity of the colliding system. One peak is observed in the anisotropy spectrum. This peak might be attributed to transitions from the continuum into the minimum of the 2p 1/2 σ MO or from the 3p 1/2 σ and 2p 3/2 σ MO's into the 2 sσ MO near the united atom limit. Radiative electron capture and secondary electron bremsstrahlung could be excluded as major sources of the observed radiation. Contrary to lighter systems no anisotropy corresponding to transitions into the 1 sσ orbital could be observed.
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