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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Cyclosporin ; Cystic fibrosis ; pharmacokinetics ; bioavailability ; formulation ; transplantation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Patients with cystic fibrosis absorb cyclosporin poorly and erratically. We have compared the relative bioavailability of cyclosporin from conventional and microemulsion formulations in 5 adult heart-lung transplant candidates with cystic fibrosis. Relative bioavailability was compared at two dose levels (200 mg and 800 mg). A randomized 4-period cross-over study was performed with at least a 7 days washout period between each single dose pharmacokinetic study. Blood cyclosporin concentrations were measured by a selective monoclonal antibody-based radioimmunoassay. The bioavailability of cyclosporin from the microemulsion formulation was 1.84 (95% C.I. 1.05 to 3.22; P−0.04) and 2.09 (95% C.I. 0.95 to 4.61; P−0.06) times higher compared with the conventional formulation at 200 mg and 800 mg respectively. Cmax following the microemulsion formulation was 3.38 (C.I. 1.14 to 10.59; P−0.04) and 2.77 (C.I. 1.48 to 5.19; P−0.01) times higher compared with the conventional formulation at 200 mg and 800 mg respectively. The higher Cmax following the microemulsion formulation was accompanied by shorter tmax. An enhancement of cyclosporin absorption with the microemulsion formulation was demonstrated in each patient for at least one dose level. We conclude that rate and extent of cyclosporin absorption from the microemulsion formulation is greater compared with the conventional formulation in patients with cystic fibrosis. The potential therapeutic and economic benefits of the micro-emulsion formulation should be evaluated in cystic fibrosis patients following heart-lung transplantation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Atrial natriuretic peptide ; Heart transplant recipients ; right-heart catheterisation ; graded submaximal exercise
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary It is known that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is synthesized, stored and released from the myocytes of mammalian heart, but the role of cardiac autonomic nerves in triggering the release of ANP has not been fully assessed. We have therefore measured plasma ANP concentrations in the right atrium and the main pulmonary artery, together with pulmonary haemodynamics in 10 heart transplant (HT) recipients who underwent graded submaximal bicycle exercise during right-heart catheterisation. Pulmonary arterial blood samples and haemodynamic measurements were obtained at rest, on peak of exercise, and after ten minutes of recovery. A radioreceptor of α-human ANP was used to measure ANP levels. Exercise significantly incresed ANP levels in both the right atrium from 24 pM (resting values) to 48.5 pM, and the main pulmonary artery from 27.1 pM (resting values) to 58.4 pM. We conclude that HT recipients still retain the ability to increase ANP release in response to graded submaximal dynamic exercise, and that the mechanisms underlying ANP release depend on other factors than the integrity of cardiac innervation in man.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We tested the hypotheses that rates of decomposition in a desert should be higher following single large rain events of 25 mm than evenly spaced 6 mm events and that supplemental rainfall should result in higher populations of soil biota. There were no significant differences in mass losses of creosotebush, Larrea tridentata, leaf litter on plots receiving water supplementation and no added water. On some sampling dates, there were higher mass losses in the 6 mm·week-1 treatment. Weekly rainfall produced higher coefficients of variation in mass losses than the other rainfall regimes. A single event pulse compared with weekly pulses of rainfall during the normal “dry” period resulted in no differences in mass losses. Microarthropods and nematodes exhibited numerical responses to supplemental rainfall but the litter microflora did not. These studies provide direct experimental evidence that the conventional wisdom linking decomposition to rainfall in deserts is wrong. The studies also suggest that the effects of litter fauna on surface litter decomposition are minimal; therefore, future studies should focus on activites of the microflora.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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