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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The removal of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) following acclimatization in an activated sludge pilot plant has been studied during transient changes in operating conditions. These changes included increases in hydraulic loading and influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and such phenomena in combination with transient temperature reductions. Short-term increases in hydraulic loading from 1 to 2 dry weather flow (dwf) had a very limited effect on NTA removal. Increasing the influent COD had a slight effect on NTA removal. Short term increases in hydraulic loading combined with transient reductions in temperature significantly reduced NTA removal. The effect of these combined changes on NTA removal was synergistic, rather than additive. Increases in influent COD combined with transient temperature reductions also caused a significant reduction of NTA removal. The effect of such combined changes on NTA removal was at most only additive.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an activated sludge pilot plant acclimatized to nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) has been compared with an identically operated plant receiving no NTA. During steady-state operation the removal of Pb and Ni was reduced in the presence of NTA but there was no detectable difference in mixed liquor metal concentrations. Transient changes in the influent metal concentration of an order of magnitude had only a slight influence on NTA removal; Ni had the greatest effect, Cd and Cu some effect and Pb a negligible effect. Short term variations in influent NTA concentrations had no effect on NTA removal. A transient increase in influent NTA concentration caused a slight decrease in NTA removal. Transient increases in influent Ni concentration combined with reductions in temperature to 10 and 7.5 °C had a slight adverse effect on NTA removal. This effect did not appear to be additive or synergistic. Combinations of transient increases in influent NTA concentration and reductions in temperature caused a significant decrease in NTA removal. The effect was synergistic rather than additive.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The removal of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) dosed to two full-scale septic tanks each connected to a single dwelling was monitored weekly over a period of 75 weeks. Nitrilotriacetic acid in the septic tank effluent was detected in samples diluted at least 25 times by a differential pulse polarographic technique. After an initial period of stabilization, concentrations of NTA in the effluent at both sites were always 〉 10 mg L−1. Mean five-weekly estimated removals of NTA during the last 50 weeks of the study ranged from 33 to 52%. Removal of NTA was probably by solids adsorption only as no acclimatization period or overall increase in removal during the investigation was apparent.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1476-5535
    Keywords: Keywords: vitamins; activated sludge; industrial wastewater; porous pots; Amtox™
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The process performance and metabolic rates of samples of activated sludge dosed with vitamin supplements have been compared. After initial screening, four vitamins and two metals as single supplements and in pairs, were dosed continuously into the mixed liquor of an activated sludge simulation. Toxicity, oxygen demand removal, respiration rates and suspended solids were measured to monitor the effect on process efficiency. It was confirmed experimentally that an industrial wastewater stream did not contain a sufficient supply of micronutrients for efficient biological treatment. This was concluded from the observation that control sludge batches (receiving no supplements) averaged chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 58%. Dosing micronutrients into the mixed liquor produced removal efficiencies of up to 69%. Some of the supplements increased the respiration rate of the sludge while some decreased it, indicating a range of stimulatory and inhibitory effects. Complex interactions between micronutrients that were dosed simultaneously were evident. Several positive effects led to the conclusion that micronutrients have the potential to optimise process performance of activated sludge plants treating industrial wastewater. The addition of phosphorus/niacin and molybdenum/lactoflavin removed wastewater components that were toxic to nitrifiers as indicated through toxicity testing, thus protecting downstream nitrification/denitrification treatment processes. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology (2000) 24, 267–274.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Virtual biopsies ; Barrett's oesophagus ; Bio-electrical impedance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract It has previously been shown that it is possible to differentiate between squamous and columnar epithelia in rat and resected human tissues using an impedance probe to makein vitro measurements. This probe can be passed down an endoscope allowing measurements to be made in patients. However, the probe emerges parallel to the oesophageal wall, with little room to manoeuvre. The conditions of control required to give reliable readings have been investigated. The importance of pressure applied and the angle of approach to the oesophagus was assessed. Pressures in the range 26.6 Pa to 46.3 kPa and angles in the range 15–90 degrees were considered. Inin vitro studies it was observed that it was possible to obtain consistent readings with pressures greater than 2.9 kPa and with angles greater than 15 degrees between the probe and the oesophagus. These conditions can be achievedin vivo, and readings obtained from twelve patients are shown (45 readings on normal squamous, 34 on Barrett's oesophagus and 22 on stomach). At low frequencies (9.6–153.2 kHz), a Mann-Whitney test shows a significant difference (p〈0.001) when comparing the means from squamous and columnar, and also when readings from Barrett's and normal gastric epithelia are compared (p〈0.001).
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2007-06-27
    Print ISSN: 0177-798X
    Electronic ISSN: 1434-4483
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Springer
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