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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2099
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Summary The ease of employing proton-induced X-ray emission analysis (PIXEA) to studies relating metal content of soils to metal uptake in plants was aptly demonstrated in an investigation concerning the effect of automotive pollution on the abundance of about 16 elements accumulated in ribwort plantain and its surrounding soil. Elemental concentrations were shown to be dependent on the age of the plant leaves, as well as the distance from the roadside.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Rigid diacetylene-containing block copolymers are shown to have Raman spectra similar to those of polydiacetylene single crystals. The vibrational frequencies of certain main-chain Raman-active modes of the copolymers are sensitive to deformation which enables strain measurement to be made by following the shift in the Raman band positions. Measurements of the stress concentrations around defects in copolymer specimens during deformation have been carried out using Raman spectroscopy and they have been compared with theoretical analyses of stress concentrations. There is good agreement between the theoretical and experimental measurements and it has been demonstrated that the use of Raman spectroscopy allows the measurement of stress or strain in complex situations for which no theoretical solutions exist.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-8935
    Keywords: Segmented polyurethanes ; Phase separation ; Compatibility ; Polyol mixture ; Thermal transitions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A series of segmented polyurethanes containing 60 wt° of hard segments (HS) was prepared from MDI (4,4′-diphenylmethane diisocyanate) ethylene glycol and mixtures of a polyoxyethylene end-capped polyoxypropylene triol and a polyoxyethylene end-capped polyoxypropylene diol. The effects of the content of polyether diol in polyether polyols on phase separation and properties was investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and investigation of tensile properties. The DSC and DMA results indicate that the polyurethane derived from only polyether triol exhibits obvious phase separation and that the HS is immiscible with the SS, but that the HS is compatible with the HS for the polyurethane derived from polyether diol. As the content of polyether diol increases, the compatibility between HS and SS increases. As the content of polyether diol increases, the tensile strength. elongation. toughness and tear resistance of the polyurethanes increases. but their moduli decrease. The modulus-temperature dependence in the temperature region of −30 to 65 °C increases as the polyether diol content increases.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: hyporheic ; floodplain aquifer ; interstitial
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Interstitial crustaceans were collected from a grid of shallow sampling wells penetrating the alluvial floodplain aquifer (ca. 10 m × 5 km × 10 km) of the Flathead River, Montana, USA. Eighteen taxa were identified, which collectively encompassed a range of hypogean-epigean affinities. The subterranean amphipod Stygobromus spp., the most common crustacean, occurred in all wells but was rare in the channel well. When well data were pooled into ‘habitat types’ (channel, bank, near-, central-, and far-floodplain), distinct faunal patterns were apparent. Crustaceans constituted an increasing percentage of the total interstitial fauna from the channel to the near-floodplain, then maintained similar relative abundance levels with increasing distance from the river. Stygobionts attained maximum values at near- and central-floodplain habitats where copepods and ostracods dropped to the lowest levels. Distribution and abundance patterns of Crustacea at the floodplain scale are structured by hydrogeologic and geomorphic processes reflected only in part by distance from the river channel. The flood plain appears to contain a latticework of alluvial-filled paleochannels of high hydraulic conductivity that induce spatial discontinuities within the aquifer and that may play an important role in determining crustacean distribution patterns.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The paper describes thermal and mechanical properties of a series of novel blends prepared using a two-stage process which invloved solution blending a specially-synthesised diacteylene-containing oligoester (DOE) with a semi-crystalline poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA), followed by conversion of the DOE to a polydiacteylene-containing oligoester (cp-DOE) by in situ thermal cross-polymerisation during moulding. Moulded blends range from ductile to brittle materials and give intense Raman spectra in which the C≡C stretching band at ∼2100 cm-1 is well-defined and shifts to lower wavenumber when the blends are subjected to tensile stress. For each blend composition, shifts in wavenumber were used to determine local stress in the cp-DOE component independently of the overall stress applied to blend.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary Segmented copolyureas have been formed by RIM using a MDI-based polyisocyanate (RMA400) and mixtures of a polyether triamine (Jeffamine T5000) and diethyltoluene diamine (DETDA) chain extender. Hard segment (HS) content was varied between 35 and 65% w/w at a constant overall stoichiometric ratio of -NCO to -NH2 groups of 1.03. All the copolyureas were translucent and DSC confirmed their totally amorphous structure. The copolyureas were shown by dynamic mechanical-thermal analysis to possess a two-phase morphology comprising polyether soft segments of constant Tgs of −40°C and aromatic polyurea hard segments with TgH increasing from 215 to 236°C as HS content increased. The ratio of flexural moduli at −35 and 65°C, decreased from 4.9 to 2.2 at 65% HS, and mechanical integrity was retained at temperatures in excess of 250°C, with flexural moduli of 10MPa at 270°C. Tensile stress-strain studies showed the polyureas to range from semi-rigid elastomers to stiff plastics with moduli greater than IGPa. Postcuring significantly improves materials toughness at high HS contents.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The properties of RIM-copolyureas formed from a polyether triamine and containing 30 to 70% by weight of MDI/DETDA hard segments (HS) were investigated. As-moulded (mould temperature 115°C) and postcured (200°C/1h) materials were compared using DSC, DMTA and tensile stress-strain measurements. Phase separation ratios (PSR) of as-moulded materials increased from 47 to 56% with increasing HS content. Postcuring increased PSR to ∼70% for all materials resulting in significant intensification of HS glass transition at TgH (220 to 250°C), and reduced mechanical damping and modulus-temperature dependence between −40 and 200°C. Agreement between experimental tensile moduli and those predicted by appropriate two-phase composite theory has confirmed the co-continuous morphology of these RIM-copolyureas over the entire composition range studied.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The effect of a pigment grade of titanium dioxide on the morphology, crystallisation and mechanical properties of a typical grade of isotactic polypropylene are described. Pigment particles are able to nucleate additional spherulites, and are incorporated within spherulitic and lamellar morphologies. Measurements of isothermal crystallisation rates using differential scanning calorimetry and hot-stage microscopy show that bulk crystallisation rate is increased by addition of the pigment due to the larger number of spherulites, while the growth rate of the spherulites is unchanged. Addition of the pigment increased tensile modulus, and reduced yield stress. The elongation at break and impact resistance were modulus, and reduced yield stress. The elongation at break and impact resistance were increased by the addition of pigment, showing that particle debonding processes can lead to toughening of the polypropylene matrix.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1436-2449
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Summary The effects of mechanical deformation on the optical properties of segmented copolyurethanes have been studied using resonance Raman spectroscopy. Linear elastomeric and glassy copolyurethanes, each containing diacetylene-urethane (DA-U) hard segment domains dispersed in a continuous polyether-urethane (PE-U) matrix, were prepared in bulk and themally cross-polymerised in the solid state. The crosslinked copolymers produced intense Raman spectra in which the $${\text{C}} \equiv {\text{C}}$$ triple bond stretching Raman band at ∼2080 cm-1 is well defined and shifts to lower frequency under the application of tensile stress. Shifts in Raman spectra have been used to monitor stress concentrations around defects such as holes and notches machined into copolyurethane sheets. The copolyurethanes are readily applied as surface coatings to various subtrates, and their use as optically stress/strain-sensitive materials (optical strain sensors) is demonstrated.
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