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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0924
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The unsteady viscous incompressible flow around a circular cylinder is studied numerically for high Reynolds number. The two dimensional Navier-Stokes equation in stream function-vorticity formulation is solved. A fractional step method is used to solve the stream function equation while the vorticity transport equation is solved using a third order upwinding scheme. The computed solutions by the finite difference method agree reasonably well with the available experimental and other computational results at a Reynolds number of 9500 and 4500. These comparisons are for the initial stages of flow evolution when the wake bubble is symmetric.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at the contact of the Chimakurthy mafic-ultramafic igneous complex, Eastern Ghats Belt, India. The rocks show progressive change in mineralogy from biotite-sillimanite-quartz-garnet-K-feldspar (association I, 150 m from the intrusive contact) to garnet-spinel-cordierite-K-feldspar-sillimanite (association II, 20–30 m from the intrusive contact) to cordierite-K-feldspar-(cordierite-orthopyroxene-K-feldspar symplectite after osumilite)-spinel-FeTiAl oxides with/without garnet (associations III and IV, 5 m from the intrusive contact), and finally to spinel-orthopyroxene-cordierite-K-feldspar (association V, xenoliths). Oxide mineral clots in associations III and IV resemble emery-type rocks. Initial mineral reactions involved biotite-dehydration melting with partial segregation of the melt. Down-temperature mineral reactions were largely diffusion controlled and preservation of symplectitic and coronitic textures in microdomains is common. Interpretation of reaction textures in relevant petrogenetic grids for the sytems KFMASH and FMAS and combined with geothermobarometry suggest that the pelitic rocks were thermally metamorphosed at c. 6 kbar pressure along a heating-cooling trajectory within the temperature interval between c. 750 °C and c. 1000 °C.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1203
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A chromosomal survey using standard lymphocyte cultures employing different media and G-banding techniques was initiated in 1984. This study became particularly important following the tragic gaseous exposure of the population in Bhopal at midnight on 2 December 1984. We have been able to formulate a chromosomal profile for each person whom we have studied; during 1986–1988, 154 persons were examined twice. Among seemingly normal individuals, as many as 20% might possess some chromosomal abnormality; of these, 50% may develop, at a later date, some kind of pathological complication (such as tumours, recurrent abortion or transmission of defects to their offspring). The people exposed to methyl isocyanate have repeatedly shown Robertsonian translocations, mostly in acrocentric chromosomes 13 and 21. Other types of translocations have been studied among all exposed (53) and normal (101) persons; the involvement of chromosomes 5, 9, 11, 14 and 16 is statistically significant (P= 〈0.001). One of the major clinical symptoms is dyspnoea; we have estimated that almost all seriously dyspnoeic patients have developed at least two categories of chromosomal aberrations, one of which is Robertsonian translocation, in at least 10% metaphases. Our chromosomal survey will be of significance because we are able to identify people with chromosomal aberrations that might be correlated with future pathological consequences of the accident. The “chromosomal load” that can be sustained with an apparently normal phenotype can also be measured.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1433-075X
    Keywords: Key words Ferroelectrics ; Phased array antenna ; Tunable devices ; Thin films
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract  Low loss, tunable dielectric materials are important for phased array antenna and other device applications. Various composites of barium strontium titanium oxide (BSTO) combined with other nonelectrically active oxide ceramics have been formulated for such uses. The dielectric constant and the loss tangents of these composites have been reduced to enhance the overall impedance matching and thereby lowering the overall insertion loss of the device. The material has been fabricated in bulk ceramic, thick film, and thin film form to address a broad range of frequency applications. The material fabrication methods and the electronic properties of these composites will be discussed in this article.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  In the estimation of glycosidase activity by dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) reagent, the stoichiometry of DNS reduction was reported to increase proportionately with the increase in the number of glycosidic linkages present in oligosaccharides liberated by the enzyme. The relationship between increases in DNS reduction and increases in the number of glycosidic bonds was found to be represented by a part of a rectangular hyperbola. The increase was optimum with disaccharide and insignificant when the degree of polymerization (DP) was ≥10. The difference did not arise as a result of the DNSA discriminating between mono- and oligosaccharide oxidation. The relationship stemmed from the acidity of the hydroxyl group adjacent to the reducing group, which repressed DNS reduction. The acidity is likely to decrease with an increase in oligosaccharide chain length. It is suggested that DNS reduction is actually optimum and uniform for all oligosaccharides of DP ≥ 10 and that it is minimum for monosaccharide. Thus the introduction of rectification factors in the estimation of glycosidase activities by the DNS method appears to be justified.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Stärke isoliert aus Wasser Kastanie (Trapa Bispinosa Roxb) wurde in Amylose und Amylopektin mit konventioneller Methodik fraktioniert. An beiden, dem Amylose-Jod und Amylopektin-Jod-Komplex wurden spektrometrische Diagramme aufgenommen. Auch über die Kinetik des Abbaues dieser Komplexe wird berichtet.
    Notes: Summary Starch isolated from water-chestnut (Trapa Bispinosa Roxb) was fractionated into amylose and amylopectin by conventional method. Spectrophotometric studies have been carried on each of amyloseiodine and amylopectin-iodine complex. The kinetics of the decomposition of these complexes have also been reported.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es wurde eine theoretische Untersuchung der Wärme-, Massen- und Impulsübertragung eines verdampfenden kugelförmigen Fluidtropfens, welcher plötzlich in eine gleichgerichtete Fluidströmung höherer Temperatur eingeleitet wird, untersucht. Das Geschwindigkeitsprofil um den Fluidtropfen herum wurde als konstant und als ein Hadamard-Rybczynski-Profil angenommen. Unter Benutzung eines ADI-Schemas der Finiten-Differenzen-Methode wurden numerische Lösungen der Erhaltungsgleichungen für Energie und Dampfmasse gewonnen. Zeitliche Gesetzmäßigkeiten der durchschnittlichen Nusselt und Sherwood-Zahlen (Nu, Sh) und des Widerstandsbeiwertes (C D ) bis zur vollständigen Verdampfung des Tropfens wurden in Abhängigkeit von den zugehörigen Eingabeparametern nämlich der Anfangs-und momentanen Peclet-Zahl (Pe i ,Pe) der Lewis-Zahl und dem Verhältnis von freier Strömungstemperatur zur Eintrittstemperatur des Tropfens (T a ′ /T i ) berechnet. Ebenso werden die lokalen Nusselt und Sherwood-Zahlen in Abhängigkeit von der Peclet-Zahl im Bereich der stationären Verdampfung dargestellt. Es wurde festgestellt, daß Werte der Nusselt-Zahl im Bereich der stationären Verdampfung von Tropfen in guter Übereinstimmung mit den entsprechenden berechneten Größen aus der empirischen Gleichung von Eisenklam liegen.
    Notes: Abstract A theoretical analysis is made of the heat, mass and momentum transfer from an evaporative liquid sphere which is suddenly introduced into a parallel stream of fluid at a higher temperature. The velocity field around the liquid sphere is assumed to be steady and of the Hadamard-Rybczynski type. Numerical solutions of energy and the vapour mass continuity equations have been carried out using the alternate direction implicit scheme of finite difference method. Temporal histories of the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers (Nu, Sh) alongwith the drag coefficient (C D ) during the life time of an evaporating drop have been predicted in terms of the pertinent input parameters, namely, initial and instantaneous Peclet number (Pe i ,Pe), Lewis number (Le), and the ratio of free stream to initial droplet temperature (T a ′ /T i ). Variations of local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers withPe, in the region of steady state evaporation, have also been presented. Values ofNu for steady state droplet evaporation are found to be in fair agreement with the corresponding values evaluated from the empirical equation of Eisenklam [5].
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Key words Nimesulide ; Topical gel ; Analgesia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Objective: The present study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy of a new topical gel formulation of nimesulide (10 mg of pure drug) with that of placebo, diclofenac and piroxicam gels (10 mg of pure drug) in three parallel groups in a double-blinded, randomized fashion with vehicle placebo. The analgesic activity of nimesulide was subsequently correlated with its pharmacokinetic profile. Methods: The drugs were applied on a fixed marked area on the skin of the right forearm. Pain stimulus was administered using a modification of the Hollander method, before and at 15, 30, 60, 120 min and 240 min post-treatment. The pain experienced by the subjects was ranked separately on the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the ten-point category scale. Antinociception induced by the treatments was evaluated through the placebo-related ratings (PRR) and total pain relief (TOTPAR) analysis. The plasma concentration of nimesulide was estimated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: Nimesulide exhibited better efficacy than diclofenac, piroxicam and placebo. It demonstrated faster onset of action in concordance with earlier studies. Peak analgesic effect was observed at 120 min post-treatment, which correlated with the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in gel formulation. In this study, diclofenac was found to be superior to piroxicam though both drugs exhibited peak analgesic effect at 60 min post-treatment. In the modified Hollander method, a good correlation was found between the ten point category scale and the VAS, indicating that it may serve as a sensitive and reliable method for the screening of analgesic drugs. Conclusion: The superior analgesic activity of nimesulide (as gel formulation), correlating with its pharmacokinetic profile, indicates that the topical route of administration may be a safe and effective alternative to the presently used oral and rectal routes.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary An amyloglucosidase from a mycelial culture of the mushroom Termitomyces clypeatus hydrolysed larch wood xylan independently and synergistically with an endo-β(1→4) xylanase of the same fungus. The glucoamylase saccharified xylan predigested with xylanase at a faster rate compared to that of xylanase acting on amylase-digested xylan. However, overall saccharification of xylan in both cases was the same. Only glucose was liberated from xylan by amylase digestion whereas xylose, xylobiose and other oligosaccharides were liberated during xylanase digestion. The synergistic response of enzyme combinations was reflected in the liberation of glucose from xylan, rather than xylose. Glucoamylase and xylanase activities on soluble and insoluble fractions of larch wood xylan with different xylose and glucose contents suggested that synergism in xylanolysis by the presence of glucoamylase was dependent on the activity of the participating xylanase on the xylan preparation. It is suggested that possibly α-glucosidic linkages are present in xylan and that amyloglucosidase might be involved in xylanolysis.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 112 (1974), S. 987-995 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Fourier transforms of theoretical magnetic anomalies of two-dimensional bodies (vertical fault and horizontal cylinder of infinite length) are computed. In both cases it is shown that for a particular body the amplitude spectra of horizontal and vertical anomalies are the same and the phase spectra differ by π/2. Different parameters like depth and susceptibility contrast can be calculated from the amplitude spectrum.
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