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  • 1
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Micropalaeontology Palaeo-oceanography ; Plankton ; Sediment traps Recent and Holocene sediments ; Actualistic approach ; Norwegian-Greenland Sea
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract A synoptic study is carried out to reconstruct the development of the plankton community in the late Quaternary in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea. It comprises quantitative analyses of coccolithophores, dinoflagellate cysts, diatoms and radiolarians. An actualistic approach is applied to evaluate the different fossil records of these plankton groups. The preliminary results of the current investigation are reported here. The composition and distribution of living communities of coccolithophores are presented as an example. A close relationship between the distribution of regional groups and surface water masses is observed. Seasonal vertical fluxes of coccolithophores and radiolarians through the water column show similar patterns within different years. However, diatoms are highly variable, both in absolute fluxes and species composition. The differentiation of sporadic and periodic processes is evident only after several years of observation. During settling and sedimentation biotic and abiotic processes such as grazing, dissolution and lateral transport alter the assemblages. Investigation of death assemblages in surface sediments reveals that in spite of these alteration processes the abundance and species distribution are related to surface water masses. Higher abundances and diversities are usually found in sediments underlying the warm Norwegian Current. Concentrations decrease to the north-west towards the cold polar water masses. The sediment assemblages of all groups are strongly altered relicts of former living communities. They are characterized by distinct changes in species composition and absolute abundances related to palaeo-oceanographic development. Their variation through the sedimentary record is used to distinguish four ecostratigraphic units during the late Weichselian and Holocene.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    In:  In: Cold-Water Corals and Ecosystems. , ed. by Freiwald, A. and Roberts, J. M. Springer, Berlin, pp. 157-172.
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: Deep-water corals are widespread in the North Atlantic. Colonial azooxanthellate scleractinians sustain ecosystems mostly in the bathyal zone down the slopes and oceanic banks off the Iberian Peninsula to as far north as the Scandinavian shelf off northern Norway. Estimates of the geological age of 37 deepwater corals exposed at the seabed from major reef areas in the North Atlantic were based on U/Th datings. In contrast to the purely Holocene ages of deep-water corals in Scandinavian waters, the Faroe area and the Rockall Trough, deep-water corals from lower latitudes like the seamounts off NW-Africa, the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the western Mediterranean Sea seemed to have grown continuously over the last 50 ka. Overall, deep-water corals showed U/Th ages between 0.09 and 53.5 ka.
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2020-01-15
    Description: Cold-water corals (CWC), dominantly Desmophyllum pertusum (previously Lophelia pertusa), and their mounds have been in the focus of marine research during the last two decades; however, little is known about the mound-forming capacity of other CWC species. Here, we present new 230Th/U age constraints of the relatively rarely studied framework-building CWC Solenosmilia variabilis from a mound structure off the Brazilian margin combined with computed tomography (CT) acquisition. Our results show that S. variabilis can also contribute to mound formation, but reveal coral-free intervals of hemipelagic sediment deposits, which is in contrast to most of the previously studied CWC mound structures. We demonstrate that S. variabilis only occurs in short episodes of 〈 4 kyr characterized by a coral content of up to 31 vol%. In particular, it is possible to identify distinct clusters of enhanced aggradation rates (AR) between 54 and 80 cm ka−1. The determined AR are close to the maximal growth rates of individual S. variabilis specimens, but are still up to one order of magnitude smaller than the AR of D. pertusum mounds. Periods of enhanced S. variabilis AR predominantly fall into glacial periods and glacial terminations that were characterized by a 60–90 m lower sea level. The formation of nearby D. pertusum mounds is also associated with the last glacial termination. We suggest that the short-term periods of coral growth and mound formation benefited from enhanced organic matter supply, either from the adjacent exposed shelf and coast and/or from enhanced sea-surface productivity. This organic matter became concentrated on a deeper water-mass boundary between South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water and may have been distributed by a stronger hydrodynamic regime. Finally, periods of enhanced coral mound formation can also be linked to advection of nutrient-rich intermediate water masses that in turn might have (directly or indirectly) further facilitated coral growth and mound formation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We report fossil coral records from the Seychelles comprising individual time slices of 14–20 sclerochronological years between 2 and 6.2 kyr BP to reconstruct changes in the seasonal cycle of western Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) compared to the present (1990–2003). These reconstructions allowed us to link changes in the SST bimodality to orbital changes, which were causing a reorganization of the seasonal insolation pattern. Our results reveal the lowest seasonal SST range in the Mid-Holocene (6.2–5.2 kyr BP) and around 2 kyr BP, while the highest range is observed around 4.6 kyr BP and between 1990 and 2003. The season of maximum temperature shifts from austral spring (September to November) to austral autumn (March to May), following changes in seasonal insolation over the past 6 kyr. However, the changes in SST bimodality do not linearly follow the insolation seasonality. For example, the 5.2 and 6.2 kyr BP corals show only subtle SST differences in austral spring and autumn. We use paleoclimate simulations of a fully coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model to compare with proxy data for the Mid-Holocene around 6 kyr BP. The model results show that in the Mid-Holocene the austral winter and spring seasons in the western Indian Ocean were warmer while austral summer was cooler. This is qualitatively consistent with the coral data from 6.2 to 5.2 kyr BP, which shows a similar reduction in the seasonal amplitude compared to the present day. However, the pattern of the seasonal SST cycle in the model appears to follow the changes in insolation more directly than indicated by the corals. Our results highlight the importance of ocean–atmosphere interactions for Indian Ocean SST seasonality throughout the Holocene. In order to understand Holocene climate variability in the countries surrounding the Indian Ocean, we need a much more comprehensive analysis of seasonally resolved archives from the tropical Indian Ocean. Insolation data alone only provides an incomplete picture.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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