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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  Type X collagen has so far not been reported to occur in human intervertebral discs. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the occurrence of type X collagen in human lumbar intervertebral discs during ageing and degeneration. Ninety intervertebral discs with adjacent endplates were excised in toto from individuals (0–86 years) without known spinal disease and were processed for routine decalcified histology. Appropriate slices of each disc were processed for immunohistochemistry using a type-spec ific, monoclonal antibody raised against human type X collagen. Each intervertebral disc was examined for macroscopic and histomorphological features of disc degeneration. Immunohistochemically, a positive specific type X staining was observed in the hypertrophic zone of the growth plate and only in the interstitial matrix of juvenile (〈2 years) nucleus pulposus. In adult discs, type X collagen could be localized in conjunction with advanced disc degeneration and first occurred in the disc matrix (i.e., pericellular region) of a 47-year-old specimen. Positive type X staining of the disc matrix was more frequently found in senile (〉70 years) discs with end stages of disc degeneration. This study provides the first evidence for the occurrence of type X collagen in human lumbar intervertebral discs and it appears that type X collagen is re-expressed in late stages of disc degeneration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the present report we analyzed the presence and distribution of various basement membrane (BM) proteins in normal blood and lymph vessels with special emphasis on BM-associated heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) when compared to the BM-components collagen IV, laminin and fibronectin. We found that normal lymph capillaries have a BM that contains only collagen IV and small amounts of laminin, but almost no BM-associated HSPG and fibronectin, while blood capillaries showed a BM comprising of all components tested for. Larger lymphatics, however, were indistinguishable from blood vessels on the basis of BM staining. Lymphangiomas showed a BM pattern similar to that of lymph capillaries. Our findings provide evidence that the differential staining of BM-components may represent a reliable method for morphological distinction between blood and lymph capillaries. A comparison of these results with the BM-pattern in other functionally specialized blood vessels (glomerulus, sinusoids) provides evidence that the BM-composition may have some major impact on the functional properties. Thus, it is conceivable that the lack of HSPG in lymph capillaries may be essential for a free influx of fluid and proteins into these capillaries, which may have been extravasated into the interstitium.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The tissue localization was analysed of collagen X during human fetal and juvenile articular cartilagebone metamorphosis. This unique collagen type was found in the hypertrophic cartilage zone peri- and extracellularly and in cartilage residues within bone trabeculae. In addition, occasionally a slight intracellular staining reaction was found in prehypertrophic proliferating chondrocytes and in chondrocytes surrounding vascular channels. A slight staining was also seen in the zone of periosteal ossification and occasionally at the transition zone of the perichondrium to resting cartilage. Our data provide evidence that the appearance of collagen X is mainly associated with cartilage hypertrophy, analogous to the reported tissue distribution of this collagen type in animals. In addition, we observed an increased and often “spotty” distribution of collagen X with increasing cartilage “degeneration” associated with the closure of the growth plate. In basal hypertrophic cartilage areas, a co-distribution of collagens II and X was found with very little and “spotty” collagen III. In juvenile cartilage areas around single hypertrophic chondrocytes, co-localization of collagens X and I was also detected.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Data are presented on the biochemical findings in several intermal organs from an Egyptian mummy with a 14C-dating of approximately 950 B.C. By use of radio immunoassay systems and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, significant amounts of various drugs were detected in internal organs (lung, liver, stomach, intestines) as well as in hair, bone, skin/muscle and tendon. These analyses revealed a significant deposition of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), nicotine (and its metabolite cotinine) and cocaine in the tissue from the mummy. The concentration profiles additionally provide evidence for the preferential ways of consumption: Thus, the highest levels of THC in lung specimens point to an inhalation of this drug — as it has been assumed from known ritual smoking ceremonies —, while nicotine and cocaine containing drugs showed their highest concentrations in the intestines and liver, so that they seem to have been consumed perorally. Furthermore, a histopathological examination of the internal organ tissues revealed some evidence for the underlying disease and the probable cause of death. Thus, a severe and presumably recurrent intravital pulmonary bleeding, most obviously due to a parasitosis affecting the lung, was observed.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Human evolution 5 (1990), S. 119-131 
    ISSN: 1824-310X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Human evolution can shed light on ethics through an account of valuing. This basic human activity is to be explained as a judgement on our desires in the light of a self appraisal with respect to desires of higher order. These concern what we desire to be and how we desire to lead a life. It is argued that the conditions of valuing may be found at least in primitive form in the use of language, which surely has an evolutionary explanation. But values may be trivial or false; to be ethically correct they must be authentic and objective. Because belief and desire are plastic to cultural influence, we cannot expect an evolutionary account of this last appraisal.
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