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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Lansoprazole ; Theophylline ; proton pump inhibitor ; theophylline metabolism ; cytochrome P-450 ; drug interaction ; enzyme induction ; human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The effect of the new substituted benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, on pharmacokinetics and metabolism of theophylline has been studied in healthy adults given oral lansoprazole 30 mg once daily for 11 days. On Days 4 and 11 of 300 mg aminophylline was simultaneously administered orally and blood samples for theophylline analysis were taken over 24 h. Urine samples were collected for up to 24 h and were assayed for theophylline and its major metabolites 1,3-dimethyluric acid (1,3-DMU), 1-methyluric acid (1-MU) and 3-methylxanthine (3-MX). The pharmacokinetic parameters of theophylline were determined, and the urinary recovery of unchanged theophylline and its major metabolites were calculated. After administration of lansoprazole for 4 days, no significant alteration in the terminal elimination half-life (t 1/2β) or the mean residence time (MRT) was detected. However, there was a significant decrease of about 13% in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and a significant increase of about 19% in the apparent clearance (CLapp). Lansoprazole treatment for 11 days caused a significant decrease of approximately 12% in t 1/2β and about 10% in the MRT of theophylline, although neither AUC nor CLapp showed a significant alteration. The excretion of 3-MX in the urine was significantly increased by about 20% after lansoprazole treatment for 4 and 11 days, although there was no significant alteration in the excretion of unchanged theophylline, 1,3-DMU or 1-MU. The results indicate that repeated administration of lansoprazole to humans induces the hepatic microsomal P-450-dependent drug oxidation system that mediates N-1-demethylation of theophylline, consequently increasing its metabolism.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0681
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Description / Table of Contents: Übersicht Mit dem Verfahren der Finiten Elemente wird das Verhalten einer nichtkugelförmigen Blase in einer zähen inkompressiblen Flüssigkeit bei rotationssymmetrischen Bedingungen untersucht. Die Navier-Stokesschen Gleichungen werden mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente näherungsweise gelöst. Das Strömungsfeld um die Blase wird in kleine dreieckige Elemente zerlegt, wobei die Oberfläche der Blase durch isoparametrische Elemente mit gekrümmten Seiten ersetzt wird. Die numerischen Rechnungen werden für den Zusammenbruch einer Blase, die anfangs kugelförmig war, in der Nähe einer ebenen festen Wand durchgeführt. Das Ergebnis zeigt, daß sich die Geschwindigkeit des in der Blase entstehenden Flüssigkeitsstrahls wegen des Einflusses der Zähigkeit vermindert.
    Notes: Summary The finite element method is used for the analysis of the behavior of a nonspherical bubble in a viscous incompressible liquid under axial conditions. The finite element approximations of the Navier Stokes equations are formulated by taking velocity and pressure as unknown variables. The flow field is discretized by triangular elements, and the bubble surface is represented by isoparametric elements with curved sides. This numerical technique is applied to the simulation of an initially spherical vapor bubble collapsing near a plane solid wall. It is made clear that a jet formed on the bubble is decelerated by the effect of liquid viscosity.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Gram-positive Rhodococcus erythropolis strain S1 formed enzymes for the degradation of phthalate when grown in a phthalate-containing minimal medium. The membrane fraction prepared from phthalate-grown cells by ultrasonication converted phthalate to protocatechuate as the final product. Using two membrane-bound enzymes, phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (PO) and 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxyphthalate 3,4-dehydrogenase (PH), prepared by solubilization of the membrane fraction, 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate was selectively obtained from phthalata. Fe2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the formation of 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate by the membrane-bound PO and PH system.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract  Gram-positive Rhodococcus erythropolis strain S1 formed enzymes for the degradation of phthalate when grown in a phthalate-containing minimal medium. The membrane fraction prepared from phthalate-grown cells by ultrasonication converted phthalate to protocatechuate as the final product. Using two membrane-bound enzymes, phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (PO) and 3,4-dihydro-3,4-dihydroxyphthalate 3,4-dehydrogenase (PH), prepared by solubilization of the membrane fraction, 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate was selectively obtained from phthalata. Fe2+ and Mn2+ stimulated the formation of 3,4-dihydroxyphthalate by the membrane-bound PO and PH system.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Ovariectomy — Chinese traditional (Kampo) medicines — Tibiae — Bone mineral density — Electron micrographs — Rat.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Preventive effects by traditional Chinese (Kampo) medicines, Unkei-to, Hachimi-jio-gan, and Juzen-taiho-to, on the progress of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats were investigated for a period of 49 days. The bone mineral density (BMD) of tibia in ovariectomized (OVX) rats decreased by 20% from those in sham-operated (Sham) rats, with the decrease completely inhibited by the administration of any one of these Kampo medicines or 17β-estradiol. From scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analyses, the surface of a trabecular bone of tibia in OVX rats had a porous or erosive appearance, whereas that of the same bone in Sham rats was composed of fine particles. The administration of three Kampo medicines and 17β-estradiol to OVX rats preserved the fine particle surface of the trabecular bone. These results strongly suggest that any of these three gynecological Kampo medicines is as effective as 17β-estradiol in preventing the development of bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 75.10.Jm ; 75.25.tZ ; 75.40.−S ; 75.30.Ds
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The static and dynamic spin fluctuations in the spinS=1, two-dimensional (2D) square-lattice antiferromagnet La2NiO4 have been studied over a wide temperature range using neutron scattering techniques. The spin correlations in La2NiO4 exhibit a crossover from two- to three-dimensional (3D) behavior as the Néel temperature is approached from above. Critical slowing down of the low-energy spin fluctuations is also observed just aboveT N . The correlation length, ξ(T), and the static structure factor,S(0), have been measured and are compared with recent theoretical calculations for the quantum 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnet using microscopic parameters determined from previous spin-wave measurements. Good agreement for ξ(T) is found with the exact low-temperature result of Hasenfratz and Niedermeyer provided that 2π p s is renormalized by ≈20% from the spin-wave value.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) ; Polyethyleneimine (PEI) cellulose ; Sulfuric acid — organic solvent ; Inorganic ions ; Separations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary Thin-layer chromatographic behavior of 49 inorganic ions has been systematically studied on polyethyleneimine (PEI) cellulose with solvent mixtures consisting of sulfuric acid and either methanol or acetone. The sorption of most ions on the cellulose increases with increasing methanol content in the solvent. The feature is noticeable for some ions which form sulfato complexes. The Rf values of Re(VII) slightly increase with increasing methanol content. Ba(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Pd(II), Au(III), Bi(III), Ru(III), Sb(III), Pt(IV), Mo(VI) and W(VI) are strongly retained on the layer in methanol media. The behavior of most ions in the acetone system does not appreciably differ from that in the methanol system, but their Rf values are somewhat higher in acetone than in methanol. There are marked differences in the behavior og Hg(II), Au(III), Ru(III) and Re(VII) between the two systems. Feasibilities for the separation of many ions of analytical interest are also demonstrated in these systems.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7357
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Boron-doped carbon-carbon composites with boron concentration around 11–15 mass % were prepared from a carbon fibre felt with dispersed boron carbide powder by infiltration of pyrolytic carbon. The composite was heat treated at several different temperatures from 2000–2800 °C. The highest bending strength was obtained for the composite at a heat treatment temperature (HTT) of 2200 °C. Carbon fibre began to be destroyed after heat treatment at 2400 °C and the structure of the composite was drastically changed above 2600 °C where the anisotropy of the composite originally existing in the thermal expansion coefficient and the thermal conductivity has been faded away. X-ray diffraction measurement indicated that graphitization of the composite was enhanced by boron doping. At HTTs above 2400 °C, the composite became graphitic, the crystallite sizes of which were more than 100 nm in Lc (004) and La (110). It was shown that boron was uniformly distributed in the composite at an HTT of 2400 °C and also that heat treatment at higher temperatures, such as 2600 °C, incurred condensation of boron. Air-oxidation loss at 800 °C appeared to be the lowest for the composite with an HTT of 2400 °C and the rate of oxidation loss was 22 times lower than that of the non-boron-doped composite.
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