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  • Springer  (3)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Spleen cells of mice from eight inbred strains and three F1 hybrids, undergoing a secondary immune response to dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH), were examined for numbers of indirect DNP-specific plaque forming cells (PFC) as well as avidity of anti-DNP antibodies. The results indicated that the magnitude of the immune response is under genetic control. Differences in average avidity and heterogeneity of avidity were found among different mouse strains, suggesting genetic control of these parameters. However, no simple pattern of inheritance for these characteristics emerged from the study.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1572-9001
    Keywords: Magnetic anisotropy ; NMR ; shielding cone ; isotropic shielding ; GIAO ; (de)shielding surface ; alkenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract In a strong magnetic field, nuclei located over a carbon-carbon double bond experience NMR shielding effects that are the net result of the magnetic anisotropy of the nearby double bond and various other intramolecular shielding effects. We have used GIAO, a subroutine in Gaussian 4, to calculate isotropic shielding values and to predict the proton NMR shielding increment for a simple model system: methane held in various orientations and positions over ethene. The average proton NMR shielding increments of several orientations of methane have been plotted versus the Cartesian coordinates of the methane protons relative to the center of ethene. A single empirical equation for predicting the NMR shielding experienced by protons over a carbon-carbon double bond has been developed from these data. The predictive capability of this equation has been validated by comparing the shielding increments for several alkenes calculated using our equation to the experimentally observed shielding increments. This equation predicts the NMR shielding effects more accurately than a previous model that was based on only one orientation of methane over ethene. Deshielding is predicted by this equation for protons over the center and within about 3 Å of a carbon-carbon double bond. This result is in contrast to predictions made by the long-held “shielding cone” model based on the McConnell equation found in nearly every textbook on NMR, but is consistent with experimental observations.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9001
    Keywords: Magnetic anisotropy ; NMR ; shielding cone ; shielding value ; GIAO ; ethene ; alkenes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Nuclei of hydrogen atoms located over a carbon-carbon double bond in the presence of a strong magnetic field experience a perturbed magnetic field caused primarily by the magnetic anisotropy of the π bond. However, the commonly used theoretical model for predicting the shielding effect of an alkene double bond on hydrogen nuclei is sometimes inconsistent with the observed proton NMR chemical shifts in structures that have covalently bonded hydrogens located over a carbon-carbon double bond. We have used the ab initio gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) method to calculate isotropic shielding values and to determine the proton NMR shielding increments for a simple model system: methane held at various positions over ethene. These shielding increments calculated for one proton of methane have been mapped as a function of their position in Cartesian coordinates relative to the center of ethene. A mathematical function has been fit to this three-dimensional shielding increment surface at each of four distances from the face of the ethene molecule. Additionally, a single mathematical equation has been developed for predicting the shielding caused by the carbon-carbon double bond in ethene. In contrast to the traditionally employed shielding model, our results predict deshielding for protons within 3 Å above the center of a carbon-carbon double bond, consistent with experimental observations in several molecular systems. The NMR shielding increments predicted by this equation are compared to observed shielding increments in some test alkenes.
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