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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 81.15.Fg; 64.60.My; 61.66.Dk
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Fabrication of metastable binary solid state film mixtures with continuously variable composition by asymmetric cross-beam PLD is demonstrated. In this technique, the materials are mixed directly in the intersection region of colliding plasmas of individual target materials. This technique can be advantageous for synthesis of solid state quasi-solutions of partially miscible materials, where one can expect interesting mechanic properties and magnetic transformations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Keywords: 71.45Gm ; 73.20Mf ; 79.20Kz
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The response of a spherical metallic particle and a void in a metal on an arbitrary external electrical (gradient) field is given analytically within two models: a macroscopic dielectric description in terms of dielectric functions and a linearized hydrodynamic theory which takes into account boundary effects as well as spatial dispersion. From the response functions, the eigenfrequencies of the collective modes and the electron-energy-loss function are obtained. For small radii we found collective modes extending beyond the classical ℓ = ∞ limit of surface-plasmons up to the volume-plasmon. Concerning electron-energy-losses, our results demonstrate that the “blue-shift” on the collective modes which were observed in potassium clusters or calculated for voids in metals are almost of classical origin and stem from spatial dispersion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-5217
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Economics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Ein quadratisches Optimierungsproblem, in demq(x) =a T x +x T Qx eine indefinite Zielfunktion ist, kann mitSwarups Optimierungsansatz (c T x + α)(d T x + β) nur gelöst werden, wenn der Rang vonQ gleich zwei ist; wennQ definit ist, muß der Rang vonQ gleich eins sein.
    Notes: Summary A quadratic programming problem, whereq(x) =a T x +x T Qx is an indefinite objective function, can be solved withSwarup's approach of optimizing (c T x + α)(d T x + β) only if the rank ofQ is two; ifQ is definite, the rank ofQ must be one.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Morphology and structure of amorphous carbon films deposited with a pulsed arc source (LASER-ARC) have been studied using microscopical methods (SEM, TEM and AFM), electron diffraction and spectroscopical investigation (EELS). The parameters of the arc source and the deposition conditions (substrate temperature) influence morphology and structure of deposited amorphous carbon films. Especially the incorporation and growth of particles, embedded in the film have been investigated. By particle analysis using an optical microscope a majority of particles that is smaller than 500 nm has been determined. The morphology has been also demonstrated similar by AFM and TEM images. Their number and size of particles is strongly influenced by the deposition temperature. The structure of amorphous film is characterized by the EELS-spectra, but the particle structure was not detectable.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-7187
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Sociology , Economics
    Notes: Abstract For the purpose of describing change in an economy's structure, and addressing issues of transformation, the notion of a time-dependent macroeconomic potential function is introduced. It penalizes deviations from equilibrium (entrepreneurial error) and induces moves toward equilibrium. Thus, from the concept of a potential function is derived the concept of short-term and long-term change forces. We focus here on the long-term structural changes of an economy as distinct from short-term cyclical variations, and we represent economic transformations as phase-transitions between monostable and ambiguous bistable states of the economy. One important feature of the potential function approach is that the parameter of the potential can be determined from empirical data. In particular, the parameters can be regressed for input variables. Hence, a relationship has been established between the structural change force and a set of input variables, some of which are controlled in part by either public or private sector agents. The method has been applied to West German and United States industry data for 1950–1980.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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