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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-0867
    Keywords: flux ; nitrification ; nitrous oxide ; rice paddy fields ; water drainage
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The flux of nitrous oxide (N2O) from a rice paddy field to the atmosphere was measured at Ryuhgasaki experiment station in Ibaraki Prefecture of Japan by closed chamber method, from the summer of 1992 to the summer of 1993. During the rice-cultivated and flooding periods when methane (CH4) was emitted, no emission or uptake of N2O was measured because the flux values were below the detection limits. After the final water drainage for harvest in August or September, N2O began to emit from the soil surface while the emission of CH4 was stopped, and N2O was emitted continually until the re-flooding day in the following spring. In the first few months after the final water drainage, the N2O flux was in the range of 10–20 µgN/m2/hour, then in the latter several months during the cold season, the N2O flux was less than 10 µgN/m2/hour. The vertical profiles of N2O, CO2 and CH4 concentrations in the plowed layer of the soil down to a depth of 20 cm, were also measured six times in the fallow season. The maximum concentrations of N2O and CO2 were found in the plowed layer in the early period, and which demonstrates that most of the N2O was produced in the plowed layer through nitrification, due to the decomposition of organic matter accumulated in the plowed layer during the rice-growing and water-flooding period. On the contrary, the vertical profiles in the cold season showed a gradual increase in the concentrations of N2O and CO2 in the plowed layer. It clearly indicates that a small amount of N2O was emitted to the atmosphere by diffusion through the plowed layer from the sub-soil layer where a large source of N2O was expected to exist.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Anterior pituitary secretory cells ; Actin filaments ; Secretory granules ; Intracellular transport ; Heavy meromyosin ; Rat (Wistar)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary As previously reported, in anterior pituitary cells of the rat, secretory granules are linked with adjacent granules, cytoorganelles, microtubules, and plasma membrane by thin filaments, 4–10 nm in diameter. The quick-freeze, deep-etching method revealed that some of the filaments linking adjacent secretory granules show 5 nm-spaced striations on their surface which are known to be characteristic of actin. Immunocytochemistry showed that actin is localized in the cytoplasm beneath the plasma membrane, and around or between secretory granules. The heavy meromyosin decoration method demonstrated that actin filaments are mainly located in the cytoplasm beneath the plasma membrane, while some actin filaments are connected with the limiting membrane of the secretory granules. The actin filaments associated with the secretory granules are considered to be involved in the intracellular transport of the granules, while those localized in the peripheral cytoplasmic matrix might control the approach of the secretory granules to the plasma membrane and their release.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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