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  • 1
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    Springer
    In:  In: Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in Continental Margins: A Global Synthesis. , ed. by Liu, K. K., Atkinson, L., Quiñones, R. and Talaue-McManus, L. Springer, New York, USA, pp. 450-453.
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Book chapter , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-07-04
    Description: Sub-micron marine aerosol particles (PM1) were collected over the period 22 June–21 July 2011 during the RV MARIA S. MERIAN cruise MSM 18/3, which travelled from the Cape Verdean island of São Vicente to Gabon, in the process crossing the tropical Atlantic Ocean with its equatorial upwelling regime. According to air mass origin and the chemical composition of the sampled aerosol particles, three main regimes could be established. Aerosol particles in the first part of the cruise were mainly of marine origin (Region I). In the second part of the cruise, marine influences mixed with increasing influence from biomass burning (Region II). In the final part of the cruise, which approached the African mainland, the biomass burning influence became dominant (Region III). Generally, aerosol particles were dominated by sulfate (caverage = 2.0 μg m−3) and ammonium ions (caverage = 0.7 μg m−3), which were well-correlated and increased slightly over the duration of the cruise. High concentrations of water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC; caverage = 0.4 μg m−3) were found, most likely as a result of the high oceanic productivity in this region. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) concentrations increased from 0.26 μg m−3 in Region I to 2.3 μg m−3 in Region III, most likely as a result of biomass burning influences. The major organic aerosol constituents were oxalic acid, methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and aliphatic amines. MSA concentrations were quite constant during the cruise (caverage = 42 ng m−3). Aliphatic amines were most abundant in Region I, with concentrations of ~ 20 ng m−3. Oxalic acid showed the opposite trend, with average concentrations of 12 ng m−3 in Region I and 158 ng m−3 in Region III. The α-dicarbonyl compounds glyoxal and methylglyoxal were detected in the aerosol particles in the low ng m−3 range and were closely correlated with oxalic acid. MSA and aliphatic amines arise from biogenic marine sources, whereas oxalic acid and the α-dicarbonyl compounds were attributed to biomass burning. Concentrations of n-alkanes increased from 0.8 to 4.7 ng m−3 over the duration of the cruise. PAHs and hopanes were abundant only in Region III (caverage of PAHs = 0.13 ng m−3; caverage of hopanes = 0.19 ng m−3). Levoglucosan was identified in several samples obtained in Region III, with caverage = 1.9 ng m−3, which points to (aged) biomass burning influences. The organic compounds quantified in this study could explain 8.3 % of WSOC in Regions I, where aliphatic amines and MSA dominated, 3.7 % of WSOC in Region II and 2.5 % of WSOC in Region III, where oxalic acid dominated.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Ocean acidification is elicited by anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions and resulting oceanic uptake of excess CO2 and might constitute an abiotic stressor powerful enough to alter marine ecosystem structures. For surface waters in gas-exchange equilibrium with the atmosphere, models suggest increases in CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) from current values of ca. 390 μatm to ca. 700–1,000 μatm by the end of the century. However, in typically unequilibrated coastal hypoxic regions, much higher pCO2 values can be expected, as heterotrophic degradation of organic material is necessarily related to the production of CO2 (i.e., dissolved inorganic carbon). Here, we provide data and estimates that, even under current conditions, maximum pCO2 values of 1,700–3,200 μatm can easily be reached when all oxygen is consumed at salinities between 35 and 20, respectively. Due to the nonlinear nature of the carbonate system, the approximate doubling of seawater pCO2 in surface waters due to ocean acidification will most strongly affect coastal hypoxic zones as pCO2 during hypoxia will increase proportionally: we calculate maximum pCO2 values of ca. 4,500 μatm at a salinity of 20 (T = 10 °C) and ca. 3,400 μatm at a salinity of 35 (T = 10 °C) when all oxygen is consumed. Upwelling processes can bring these CO2-enriched waters in contact with shallow water ecosystems and may then affect species performance there as well. We conclude that (1) combined stressor experiments (pCO2 and pO2) are largely missing at the moment and that (2) coastal ocean acidification experimental designs need to be closely adjusted to carbonate system variability within the specific habitat. In general, the worldwide spread of coastal hypoxic zones also simultaneously is a spread of CO2-enriched zones. The magnitude of expected changes in pCO2 in these regions indicates that coastal systems may be more endangered by future global climate change than previously thought.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: The distribution of the mean oceanic oxygen concentration results from a balance between ventilation and consumption. In the eastern tropical Pacific and Atlantic, this balance creates extended oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) at intermediate depth. Here, we analyze hydrographic and velocity data from shipboard and moored observations, which were taken along the 23°W meridian cutting through the Tropical North East Atlantic (TNEA) OMZ, to study the distribution and generation of oxygen variability. By applying the extended Osborn–Cox model, the respective role of mesoscale stirring and diapycnal mixing in producing enhanced oxygen variability, found at the southern and upper boundary of the OMZ, is quantified. From the well-ventilated equatorial region toward the OMZ core a northward eddy-driven oxygen flux is observed whose divergence corresponds to an oxygen supply of about 2.4 μmol kg−1 year−1 at the OMZ core depth. Above the OMZ core, mesoscale eddies act to redistribute low- and high-oxygen waters associated with westward and eastward currents, respectively. Here, absolute values of the local oxygen supply 〉10 μmol kg−1 year−1 are found, likely balanced by mean zonal advection. Combining our results with recent studies, a refined oxygen budget for the TNEA OMZ is derived. Eddy-driven meridional oxygen supply contributes more than 50 % of the supply required to balance the estimated oxygen consumption. The oxygen tendency in the OMZ, as given by the multidecadal oxygen decline, is maximum slightly above the OMZ core and represents a substantial imbalance of the oxygen budget reaching about 20 % of the magnitude of the eddy-driven oxygen supply.
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