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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diclofenac ; dipyrone ; renal colic ; pain score ; vital signs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A randomized, double-blind clinical trial in 50 patients was done to compare the efficacy and tolerance of single doses of intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg and dipyrone 2 g in acute renal colic. Both drugs were equally effective, but diclofenac was better in terms of complete relief of pain. Vital signs were affected according to the stress and pain.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Helianthus annuus ; Sunflower mutant ; Stearic acid ; Oil quality ; Genetic control
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A sunflower mutant, CAS-3, with about 25% stearic acid (C18:0) in the seed oil was recently isolated after a chemical-mutagen treatment of RDF-1-532 seeds (8% C18:0). To study the inheritance of the high C18:0 content, CAS-3 was reciprocally crossed to RDF-1–532 and HA-89 (5% C18:0). Significant reciprocal-cross differences were found in one of the two crosses, indicating possible maternal effects. In the CAS-3 and RDF-1–532 crosses, the segregation patterns of the F1, BC1, and F2 populations fitted a one-locus (designated Es1) model with two alleles (Es1, es1) and with partial dominance of low over high C18:0 content. Segregation patterns in the CAS-3 and HA-89 crosses indicated the presence of a second independent locus (designated Es2) with two alleles (Es2, es2), also with partial dominance of low over high C18:0 content. From these results, the proposed genotypes (C18:0 content) of each parent were as follows: CAS-3 (25.0% C18:0) =es1es1es2es2; RDF-1–532 (8.0% C18:0) =Es1Es1es2es2; and HA-89 (4.6% C18:0) =Es1Es1Es2Es2. The relationship between the proposed genotypes and their C18:0 content indicates that the Es1 locus has a greater effect on the C18:0 content than the Es2 locus. Apparently, the mutagenic treatment caused a mutation of Es1 to es1 in RDF-1–532.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Helianthus annuus ; Sunflower mutant ; Palmitic acid ; Inheritance ; Fatty acid composition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Sunflower genotypes with increased levels of palmitic acid (C16 : 0) in the seed oil could be useful for food and industrial applications. The objective of the present study was to determine the inheritance of the high C16 : 0 content in the sunflower mutant line CAS-5 (〉25% of the total oil fatty acids). This mutant was reciprocally crossed with the lines HA-89 (5.7% C16 : 0) and BSD-2-691 (5.4% C16 : 0), the latter being the parental line from which CAS-5 was isolated. No maternal effect for the C16 : 0 content was observed from the analysis of F1 seeds in any of the crosses. The inheritance study of the C16 : 0 content in F1, F2 and BC1F1 seeds from the crosses of CAS-5 with its parental line BSD-2-691 indicated that the segregation fitted a model of two alleles at one locus with partial dominance for the low content. The analysis of the fatty acid composition in the F2 populations from the crosses with HA-89 revealed a segregation fitting a ratio 19 : 38 : 7 for low (〈7.5%), middle (7.5–15%), and high (〉25%) C16 : 0 content, respectively. This segregation was explained on the basis of three loci (P1, P2, P3) each having two alleles showing partial dominance for low content. The genotypes with a high C16 : 0 content were homozygous for the recessive allele p1 and for at least one of the other two recessive alleles, p2 or p3. This model was further confirmed with the analysis of the F3 and the BC1F1 generations. It was concluded that both the recessive alleles p2 and p3 were already present in the BSD-2-691 line, the allele p1 being the result of a mutation from P1. This genetic study will facilitate breeding strategies associated with the incorporation of the high C16 : 0 trait into agronomically acceptable sunflower hybrids.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Bone growth — Fractures — Osteotomy.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. One hundred and five 5-week-old male rats were used to study the influence of the stability of an osteotomy on longitudinal overgrowth of the bone. In 45 rats (Group 1) a transverse diaphyseal osteotomy of the right tibia was made; the left tibia was left untreated. In the second 45 rats (Group 2) the right tibia was osteotomized after applying an external fixator; the left tibia underwent a sham operation without osteotomy. Fifteen further rats (Group 3) were used as a nonoperated control group. After being measured at different periods up to 20 weeks, the osteotomized tibiae of the Group 1 (unstable) were 16–25% longer than those of their nontreated limbs (P 〈 0.001). The osteotomized tibiae of the Group 2 (stable) were 6–11% longer than those of the sham-operated opposite limbs (P 〈 0.001). The osteotomized and unstable tibiae were 9–17% longer than the osteotomized and stable tibiae (P 〈 0.001) throughout the whole study. Although several factors have been considered to be responsible for longitudinal bone overgrowth after fracture in young animals, this work suggests that bone's stability plays a decisive role in the final outcome.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Key words: Human osteoblastic cells — Skeletal site — Aging.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Bone loss with aging may be due, at least in part, to inadequate bone formation. Moreover, the process of bone aging is known to follow a different pattern throughout the skeleton. In this study, we examined the cell proliferation rate (area under the cell growth curve, AUC) and the secretion of C-terminal type I procollagen (PICP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin (OC) in primary cultures of osteoblastic cells from human trabecular bone. Osteoblastic cells were obtained for 168 donors (100 women and 68 men). Ninety-eight bone samples were obtained from subjects undergoing knee arthroplastia, 52 aged 50–70 years (64 ± 5) and 46 over age 70 (73 ± 2). Another 70 bone samples were obtained from subjects undergoing hip arthroplastia; 51 were 50–70 years old (64 ± 4) and 19 were over 70 (75 ± 5). Osteoblastic cells from the older donors had a lower proliferation rate and OC secretion than those from younger subjects. However, ALP secretion was higher in the former subjects, whereas PICP secretion was unchanged. Osteoblastic cells from hip had a lower proliferation rate than those from knee. PICP secretion was also lower and ALP secretion was higher in the former cells. In age-matched cell cultures, osteoblastic cells from the knee had higher proliferation rate and PICP secretion than osteoblastic cells from the hip. However, ALP secretion was lower in knee osteoblastic cells than those from hip only in the younger group. With aging, ALP secretion was found to increase in knee osteoblactic cells, whereas OC secretion decreased in osteoblastic cell cultures from the hip. Our findings suggest that bone loss with aging may be accounted for, at least in part, by a decreased osteoblastic cell proliferation and an increased osteoblastic maturation. In addition, our data indicate that these changes with aging do not occur similarly at different skeletal sites.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Phototropism ; Sporangiophore ; Blue-light photoreceptor ; Flavins ; Gel electrophoresis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We have identified a new locus in Phycomyces blakesleeanus that codes for a flavoprotein designated previously as FP2. According to results from a sexual cross, this locus, flp, maps near the gene madC, a marker for abnormal phototropic sensitivity. The recombination frequency between flp and madC is about 10%. Further, the flp marker is unlinked with the carotene locus carA. Because the flavoprotein FP2 is absent in certain photoreceptor mutants (Pollock et al. 1985 a), it had been proposed as a candidate for the blue-light photoreceptor. We have found, however, that some strains lacking this protein retain normal phototropism. Therefore, the flavoprotein FP2 is probably not involved in photoreception.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7543
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract The collision avoidance and resolution multiple access (CARMA) protocol is presented and analyzed. CARMA uses a collision avoidance handshake in which the sender and receiver exchange a request to send (RTS) and a clear to send (CTS) before the sender transmits any data. CARMA is based on carrier sensing, together with collision resolution based on a deterministic tree-splitting algorithm. For analytical purposes, an upper bound is derived for the average number of steps required to resolve collisions of RTSs using the tree-splitting algorithm. This bound is then applied to the computation of the average channel utilization in a fully connected network with a large number of stations. Under light-load conditions, CARMA achieves the same average throughput as multiple access protocols based on RTS/CTS exchange and carrier sensing. It is also shown that, as the arrival rate of RTSs increases, the throughput achieved by CARMA is close to the maximum throughput that any protocol based on collision avoidance (i.e., RTS/CTS exchange) can achieve if the control packets used to acquire the floor are much smaller than the data packet trains sent by the stations. Simulation results validate the simplifying approximations made in the analytical model. Our analysis results indicate that collision resolution makes floor acquisition multiple access much more effective.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Helianthus ; Oleate desaturase ; Fatty acid unsaturation ; Membrane fatty acids ; Seed (fatty acids)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of temperature on oleate desaturation in developing sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds has been examined. When seeds from plants grown at low (20/10° C, day/night) temperature were transferred for 24 h to 10° C, an increase in the linoleate/oleate ratio in phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerol was observed, but not when transfer was to 20 or 30° C. The same effect was observed in triacylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in the newly synthesized lipids after in-vivo incubation with [1-14C]oleate at 10° C. The microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase (ODS) activity of the seeds maintained at 10† C was also enhanced. The stimulation was observed after only 3 h in plants grown at high temperature (30/20° C). This effect was inhibited by cycloheximide, implying that the low-temperature stimulation of the ODS activity was caused by the synthesis of new enzyme. As a consequence, seeds from plants grown at low temperature had higher ODS activities and linoleate contents than those grown at high temperature. The microsomal ODS activity of seeds from plants grown at low temperature was dependent on incubation temperature and showed a maximum at 20° C. By contrast, this activity was almost temperature-insensitive in seeds from plants grown at high temperature. These results could explain how temperature regulates the fatty-acid composition in sunflower-seed lipids.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Key words: Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase –Helianthus (seed formation) – Lipid biosynthesis – Mutant (sunflower) – Palmitic acid mutant – Seed formation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. During sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed formation there was an active period of lipid biosynthesis between 12 and 28 days after flowering (DAF). The maximum in-vitro acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities (EC 3.1.2.14) were found at 15 DAF, preceding the largest accumulation of lipid in the seed. Data from the apparent kinetic parameters, V max and K m, from seeds of 15 and 30 DAF, showed that changes in acyl-ACP thioesterase activity are not only quantitative, but also qualitative, since, although the preferred substrate was always oleoyl-ACP, the affinity for palmitoyl-ACP decreased, whereas that for stearoyl-ACP increased with seed maturation. Bisubstrate assays carried out at 30 DAF seemed to indicate that the total activity found in mature seeds is due to a single enzyme with 100/75/15 affinity for oleoyl-ACP/stearoyl-ACP/palmitoyl-ACP. In contrast, at 15 DAF, enzymatic data together with partial sequences from cDNAs indicated the presence of at least two enzymes with different properties, a FatA-like thioesterase, with a high affinity for oleoyl-ACP, plus a FatB-like enzyme, with preference for long-chain saturated fatty acids, both being expressed during the active lipid biosynthesis period. Competition assays carried out with CAS-5, a mutant with a higher content of palmitic acid in the seed oil, indicated that a modified FatA-type thioesterase is involved in the mutant phenotype.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Sunflower ; Helianthus annuus ; High palmitic acid ; High stearic acid ; Epistatic interaction ; Inheritance ; Oil quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutants with high concentrations of saturated fatty acids in their seed oil have been identified and studied extensively. The mutant line CAS-5 has high concentrations of palmitic acid (C16:0) (〉25% compared with 7% in standard sunflower seed oil) and low-C18:0 values (3%). CAS-3 is characterized by its high levels of stearic acid (C18:0) (〉22% compared with 4% in standard sunflower seed oil) and a low-C16:0 content (5%). CAS-5 also possesses elevated levels of palmitoleic acid (C16:1) (〉5%), which is absent in standard sunflower seed oil. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between the loci controlling the high-C16:0 and the high-C18:0 traits in these mutants. Plants of both mutants were reciprocally crossed. Gas chromatographic analyses of fatty acids from the seed oil of F1, F2, F3 and the BC1F1 to CAS-5 generations indicated that the loci controlling the high-C16:0 trait exerted an epistatic effect over the loci responsible for the high-C18:0 character. As a result, the phenotypic combination containing both the high-C16:0 levels of CAS-5 and the high-C18:0 levels of CAS-3 was not possible. However, phenotypes with a saturated fatty acid content of 44% (34.5% C16:0+9.5% C18:0) were identified in the F3 generation. These are the highest saturated (C16:0 and C18:0) levels reported so far in sunflower seed oil. When F3 C16:0 segregating generations in both a high- and a low-C18:0 background were compared, the high-C16:1 levels were not expressed as expected in the high-C18:0 background (CAS-3 background). In this case, the C16:1 content decreased to values below 1.5%, compared with 〉5% in a low-C18:0 background. As the stearoyl-ACP desaturase has been reported to catalyze the desaturation from C16:0-ACP to C16:1-ACP, these results suggested that a decrease in its activity was involved in the accumulation of C18:0 in the high-C18:0 mutant CAS-3.
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