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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Using a multivariate model testing procedure that distinguishes between model inadequacies and data uncertainties, we investigate the ability of the LODYC GCM to simulate the evolution of the 20°C isotherm depth during the 1982–1984 FOCAL/SEQUAL experiment in the equatorial Atlantic. Two different versions of the model are considered: the “Ri” version which has a Richardson number dependent parameterization of vertical mixing and the new “TKE” version which uses a local estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy to parameterize vertical mixing. Some effects of the forcing uncertainties are considered by forcing the TKE version with three equally plausible wind stress fields whose differences are consistent with the measurement and sampling errors, and the drag coefficient indeterminacy. The resulting uncertainties in the model response are substantial and can be as large as the differences between simulations with the two GCM versions, which stresses the need to take the forcing uncertainties into account. Although only one Ri run is available, it is shown that the “TKE” parameterization significantly improves the representation of the equatorial upwelling and the simulation of the depth of the thermocline in the eastern Atlantic. However, there remain significant differences with the observations which cannot be explained by the forcing uncertainties that were considered. The two model versions perform better in the equatorial wave guide than in the 12°N-12°S domain, and they are better distinguished over large domains than along sections, which shows that a global multivariate view point must be used in model-reality comparisons. Finally, a comparison with a linear multimode model emphasizes the need for greater model complexity to properly simulate the equatorial upwelling and the thermocline variability in the tropical Atlantic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-01-19
    Description: The influence of the natural variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) on the atmosphere is studied in multi-centennial simulations of six global climate models, using Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA). In all models, a significant but weak influence of the AMOC changes is found during the Northern Hemisphere cold-season, when the ocean leads the atmosphere by a few years. Although the oceanic pattern slightly varies, an intensification of the AMOC is followed in all models by a weak sea level pressure response that resembles a negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The signal amplitude is typically 0.5 hPa and explains about 10% of the yearly variability of the NAO in all models. The atmospheric response seems to be due primarily due to an increase of the heat loss along the North Atlantic Current and the subpolar gyre, associated with an AMOC-driven warming. Sea-ice changes appear to be less important. The stronger heating is associated to a southward shift of the lower-tropospheric baroclinicity and a decrease of the eddy activity in the North Atlantic storm track, which is consistent with the equivalent barotropic perturbation resembling the negative phase of the NAO. This study thus provides some evidence of an atmospheric signature of the AMOC in the cold-season, which may have some implications for the decadal predictability of climate in the North Atlantic region.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Using a multivariate model testing procedure that distinguishes between model inadequacies and data uncertainties, we investigate the ability of the LODYC GCM to simulate the evolution of the 20° C isotherm depth during the 1982–1984 FOCAL/SEQUAL experiment in the equatorial Atlantic. Two different versions of the model are considered: the “Ri” version which has a Richardson number dependent parameterization of vertical mixing and the new “TKE” version which uses a local estimation of the turbulent kinetic energy to parameterize vertical mixing. Some effects of the forcing uncertainties are considered by forcing the TKE version with three equally plausible wind stress fields whose differences are consistent with the measurement and sampling errors, and the drag coefficient indeterminacy. The resulting uncertainties in the model response are substantial and can be as large as the differences between simulations with the two GCM versions, which stresses the need to take the forcing uncertainties into account. Although only one Ri run is available, it is shown that the “TKE” parameterization significantly improves the representation of the equatorial upwelling and the simulation of the depth of the thermocline in the eastern Atlantic. However, there remain significant differences with the observations which cannot be explained by the forcing uncertainties that were considered. The two model versions perform better in the equatorial wave guide than in the 12° N–12° S domain, and they are better distinguished over large domains than along sections, which shows that a global multivariate view point must be used in model-reality comparisons. Finally, a comparison with a linear multimode model emphasizes the need for greater model complexity to properly simulate the equatorial upwelling and the thermocline variability in the tropical Atlantic.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
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