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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 20 (1991), S. 91-97 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Pythium ; Mitochondrial plasmid ; RNA transcript
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Four circular plasmids, with a monomer size ranging from 3.2 to 4.94 kb, have been identified in isolates of P. aphanidermatum (two different plasmids), P. torulosum, and an unidentified echinulate isolate. The mitochondrial location has been confirmed for three of the plasmids. Each fungal isolate contained a single plasmid, present in both monomeric and oligomeric forms; plasmid monomers were present as open circles and as supercoiled forms. Restriction maps of the plasmids were dissimilar. Hybridization studies using cloned plasmids revealed no DNA sequence similarity among the different plasmids or between the plasmids and the nuclear or mitochondrial genome of the isolates from which they were recovered. Hybridization of labeled plasmid DNA to Northern transfers of mitochondrial RNA for two isolates indicate that what appears to be the predominant RNA transcript is unit length in size. For three isolates, the plasmid was retained following subculturing and was present in all asexual and sexual single-spore progeny evaluated. For one isolate of P. aphanidermatum the plasmid was unstable and was lost during subculturing.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 16 (1989), S. 373-374 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Pythium sylvaticum ; Mitochondrial inheritance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fifty single oospore progeny from crosses between opposite mating types of Pythium sylvaticum that contained polymorphisms in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for HindIII restriction sites were analyzed for patterns of mitochondrial inheritance. All progeny retained the morphological form of the oogonial parental type; the antheridial form or recombinant forms of parental mtDNA were not detected. With the techniques used, other forms of mtDNA would have been detected it they had comprised 8% or more of the mitochondrial population.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Current genetics 28 (1995), S. 225-234 
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Pythium ; Linear mitochondrial DNA ; Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis ; ATPase9 ; mtDNA replication
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of isolates of Pythium oligandrum with linear mitochondrial genomes revealed a distinct band in ethidium bromide-stained gels similar in size to values estimated by restriction mapping of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Southern analysis confirmed that these bands were mtDNA and indicated that linear genomes were present in unit-length size as well as multimers. Isolates of this species with circular mtDNA restriction maps also had low levels of linear mono- and multimers. visualized by Southern analysis of PFGE gels. Examination of 17 additional species revealed similar results; three species had distinct linear mtDNA bands in ethidium bromide-stained gels while the remainder had linear mono- and multi-mers in lower amounts detected only by Southern analysis. Sequence analysis of an isolate of P. oligandrum with a primarily circular mitochondrial genomic map and a low amount of linear molecules revealed that the small unique region of the circular map (which corresponded to the terminal region of linear genomes) was flanked by palindromic intrastrand complementary sequences separated by a unique 194-bp sequence. Sequences with similarity to ATPase9 coding regions from other organisms were located adjacent to this region. Sequences with similarity to mitochondrial origins of replication and autonomously replicating sequences were also located in this region: their potential involvement in the generation of linear molecules is discussed.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden die vier transversalen galvanomagnetischen und thermomagnetischen Effekte bei adiabatischer Anordnung nach der Sommerfeldschen Theorie berechnet und die Beziehungen unter diesen Effekten theoretisch untersucht. Die verschiedenen thermoelektrischen Effekte in homogenen Kreisen werden diskutiert.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 64 (1930), S. 650-656 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, daß der Einfluß des Elektron-Spins auf die Widerstandsänderung eines Metalls in einem Magnetfeld wesentlich kleiner ist als der von der Lorentzschen Kraft herrührende Effekt, im Gegensatz zu einer von F. Bloch gegebenen Abschätzung. Bis jetzt hat man keine befriedigende Erklärung weder für die neuen Kapitzaschen Messungen bei großen Feldern, noch für den normalen Effekt bei kleinen Feldern.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The standard Lown-type capacitor discharge waveform was compared with a single half-cycle 60-Hz sinusoid for effectiveness of defibrillation. Both shock types were used in attempts to defibrillate a series of dogs over a range of intensities from that below the minimum required for defibrillation to values well above those which consistently were successful. An on-line computer was used to monitor energy, peak current, and peak voltage of each shock. The results were plotted as percent success vs each parameter and comparisons were made at the 80% level. The half-cycle sinusoid required 18% more energy but 20% less peak current and 15% less peak voltage for 80% probability of success at these intensity levels. These results indicate that the half-cycle 60-Hz sinusoid is a reasonable alternative as a defibrillating waveform for low-energy applications (open chest surgery, some pediatric cases, and small animal applications) where its advantages of waveform unaffected by load impedance, and simplicity of circuit, may be realized.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution 230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43-1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the 230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant 230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: creatine kinase ; mitochondria ; respiration ; contraction ; regulation ; thermodynamics ; compartmentation ; functional coupling ; metabolic channelling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Some historical aspects of development of the concepts of functional coupling, metabolic channelling, compartmentation and energy transfer networks are reviewed. Different quantitative approaches, including kinetic and mathematical modeling of energy metabolism, intracellular energy transfer and metabolic regulation of energy production and fluxes in the cells in vivo are analyzed. As an example of the system with metabolic channelling, thermodynamic aspects of the functioning the mitochondrial creatine kinase functionally coupled to the oxidative phosphorylation are considered. The internal thermodynamics of the mitochondrial creatine kinase reaction is similar to that for other isoenzymes of creatine kinase, and the oxidative phosphorylation process specifically influences steps of association and dissociation of MgATP with the enzyme due to channelling of ATP from adenine nucleotide translocase. A new paradigm of muscle bioenergetics - the paradigm of energy transfer and feedback signaling networks based on analysis of compartmentation phenomena and structural and functional interactions in the cell is described. Analysis of the results of mathematical modeling of the compartmentalized energy transfer leads to conclusion that both calcium and ADP, which concentration changes synchronously in contraction cycle, may simultaneously activate oxidative phosphorylation in the muscle cells in vivo. The importance of the phosphocreatine circuit among other pathways of intracellular energy transfer network is discussed on the basis of the recent data published in the literature, with some experimental demonstration. The results of studies of perfused rat hearts with completely inhibited creatine kinase show significantly decreased work capacity and respectively, energy fluxes, in these hearts in spite of significant activation of adenylate kinase system (Dzeja et al. this volume). These results, combined with those of mathematical analysis of the energy metabolism of hearts of transgenic mice with switched off creatine kinase isoenzymes confirm the importance of phosphocreatine pathway for energy transfer for cell function and energetics in mature heart and many other types of cells, as one of major parts of intracellular energy transfer network and metabolic regulation.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 38 (1974), S. 33-41 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The fractional convective flux πF c (x c /πF) is computed for the effective level x c = logτ c = 0.125, using bi-dimensional co-spectra for relative continuum-brightness fluctuations ΔI and radial velocity fluctuations ΔV measured for the C i 5052.16 spectral line. A more uncertain flux for x Fe ≈ - 0.9 is obtained for the Fe i 5049.83 line. Since the results (Figure 1) incorporate current uncertainties in RMS ΔI , RMS ΔV and RMS ΔT (x), where ΔT are photospheric temperature fluctuations, they must be considered qualitative until these uncertainties are appreciably reduced. The requirement that the fractional convective flux 〈 1, places restrictions on these uncertainties which suggest that current RMS ΔT (x)'s are too large. The results confirm the importance of overshoot at the top of the solar hydrogen convection zone and suggest a non-negligible fractional convective flux throughout the lower photosphere. Qualitatively, they do not agree with the predictions of the generally-used, local, mixing-length theory or those of Parsons' (1969) modified mixing-length theory. However, qualitative agreement with the predictions of the non-local, generalized mixing-length theory of Spiegel (1963) and with the non-local theory of Ulrich (1970) cannot be considered as observational confirmation of these theories.
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