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  • Springer  (1,516)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-3058
    Keywords: Neural networks ; Length-of-stay ; Psychiatry ; Resource utilization ; Back propagation ; Field study
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Demands for health care reform will increase service utilization, much of which will fall on a system of expanded primary care providers, many of whom will not be specialists in psychiatry. These providers will need tools to augment their decision-making process. In this paper, we explore the use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in three different field sites to predict inpatient psychiatric Length-Of-Stay (LOS). This study describes the development and implementation of a runtime system in three different psychiatric facilities. Data was collected at these respective sites using the runtime system, and then this data was used to retrain the networks to determine if site-specific data would improve accuracy of prediction of LOS. The results indicate that ANNs trained with state hospital data could accurately predict LOS in two different community hospital psychiatric units. When the respective ANNs were retrained with approximately 10% new data from these specific hospitals, rates of improvement ranged from 3% to 15%. Our findings demonstrate that an ANN can adapt to different treatment settings and, when retrained, significantly improve prediction of LOS. Prediction rates by the ANN after retraining are comparable to results of a clinical team.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-2056
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Throughout 1981, the first routine collections of a variety of fish were made under the McMurdo Ice Shelf near White Island, Antarctica. Estimates of their local biomass were calculated using food consumption patterns of resident seals. Since no significant primary production occurs at White Island, the resident fauna must be maintained by a large nutrient influx from the Ross Sea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9761
    Keywords: bird distributions ; Monte Carlo ; nearest neighbor ; point patterns ; randomization ; spatial pattern ; spatial statistics ; test of randomness
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents a nearest neighbor method for the spatial analysis of data collected from discrete field sampling sites. The method was applied to point counts of birds at permanent survey sites in the Nicolet National Forest of northeastern Wisconsin. The spatial analysis method we developed uses a Monte Carlo randomization approach to test for non-randomness not only of the mean nearest neighbor distance between n points but also the mean second nearest, third nearest,..., to (n−1)th nearest distances to reveal spatial information at multiple scales. Because the bird survey sites are not randomly distributed throughout the forest, the survey sites at which a given species was recorded were compared with random samples drawn from the total survey sites rather than from all possible points within the forest. More refined analyses restricted the randomization by (a) habitat type, in order to separate the effects of non-randomly distributed habitat types on species' distributions; and (b) north-south regions of the forest, in order to account for regional gradients in distribution which were evident for some species. Spatial patterns among the sites at which the birds were detected reveal information about the scale at which the birds are distributed in their environment and provide a more complete picture of multi-scale bird population dynamics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Communications in mathematical physics 215 (2000), S. 239-244 
    ISSN: 1432-0916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract: Some new operator versions of the Schwarz inequality are obtained. One of them is a counterpart of the variance-covariance inequality in the context of noncommutative probability.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The ca. 2.7–2.5 Ga Slave Province is a “granitegreenstone” terrane comprising deformed sedimentary and subordinate volcanic belts extensively intruded by granitoid rocks. The Nd isotopic data are reported for 58 samples of supracrustal and granitoid rocks exposed along a 400 km, east-west, transect at 65°N across the structural grain of the province. Initial ɛ Nd values reveal distinctly different crustal sources in the eastern compared to the western parts of the province, as expected from tectonic assembly of the province through accretion of juvenile crust to older continental crust. Supracrustal sequences (ca. 2.71–2.65 Ga) from the central and eastern parts of the province have positive ɛ Nd(1) values (+0.3 to +3.6), consistent with juvenile sources and formation remote from significantly older crust. Syn to late-deformation (ca. 2.63–2.60 Ga), mantle-derived diorites and related tonalites (type I) from the central and eastern parts of the province have similar initial ɛ Nd values (-0.1 to +2.7). In contrast, samples from the westernmost plutons, which intrude exposed pre-3.1 Ga crust, have much lower ɛ Nd(1) values (-1.0 to4.6) suggesting contamination of these magmas by older crust. The ɛ Nd(1) values of post-deformation granites (s.s.) (type II) also vary systematically across the province: values for granites west of longitude 110°30′W range from-0.2 to -5.3; those to the east range from +0.6 to +3.7. These data suggest mixed crustal sources dominated by Mid to Early Archean material (ɛ Nd-2.6 to- 17 at 2.6 Ga) for the western granitoid rocks and juvenile sources for the eastern granites. The Nd isotopic data are consistent with the geology of the province in that exposures of Mid to Early Archean crustal rocks, predating the principal 2.7–2.5 Ga orogenic event are restricted to the western part of the province. The asymmetric pattern defined by the Nd isotopic data indicates the presence of distinct crustal rocks beneath the Slave Province. Similar isotopic variations observed across Phanerozoic collisional orogens have been interpreted to reflect tectonic assembly of crust by accretion of juvenile crustal terranes to an older continental margin. This process may also have been an important mechanism in the cratonization of the Slave Province.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key words Ustilago maydis ; GABA aminotransferase ; Heterologous expression ; Sequence conservation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  A gene encoding a putative GABA aminotransferase (ugatA) was isolated from the basidiomycete Ustilago maydis via heterologous hybridization to the GABA aminotransferase gene (gatA) of Aspergillus nidulans . The derived amino-acid sequence of ugatA shows strong identity throughout the protein to the GABA aminotransferase enzymes from A. nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Northern analysis in U. maydis indicated that the ugatA transcript is inducible by the ω-amino acids GABA and β-alanine, and is not subject to nitrogen catabolite repression. With the use of ugatA promoter-lacZ fusion constructs, it was demonstrated that the removal of sequences located approximately 250 bp 5′ to the translational start site of ugatA (including multiple copies of a 7-bp direct repeat) resulted in the loss of induction by ω-amino acids. While the ugatA gene under the control of the A. nidulans gatA promoter was able to fully complement a gatA - phenotype in A. nidulans, the full-length ugatA gene was not, suggesting a lack of expression from the U. maydis promoter in A. nidulans. A U. maydis strain with a gene disruption at the ugatA locus showed decreased growth on β-alanine as a sole nitrogen source, but was able to grow on GABA as a sole nitrogen source, indicating an alternative pathway for the utilization of GABA in U. maydis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Key wordsAspergillus nidulans ; Ammonium assimilation ; Glutamate synthase ; Gene inactivation ; Glutamate dehydrogenase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mutants of Aspergillus nidulans lacking NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity grow more poorly than wild-type strains on ammonium as a sole nitrogen source. The leaky growth of these mutants is indicative of an alternative pathway of ammonium assimilation and glutamate biosynthesis. We have PCR-amplified a portion of the A. nidulans gene encoding glutamate synthase and used this sequence to inactivate the genomic copy. This gene, designated gltA, was found to be dispensable for growth on ammonium in the presence of NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity. However, a strain carrying the gltA inactivation together with an NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase structural gene mutation (gdhA) was unable to grow on ammonium or on nitrogen sources metabolized via ammonium. The gltA gene was located to linkage group V of the A. nidulans genetic map.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Decision making ; Economic analysis ; Environmental management ; Subjective judgment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract A process is described for making comparative valuations of a wide range of environmental management activities when the combined social, economic, managerial, and political benefits of some (but not all) of these activities cannot be adequately described in economic terms and when budgetary constraints do not permit funding of all activities under consideration. The process accounts for subjective judgment and contains a formal rigorous decision strategy that takes the place of intuition when quantitative and qualitative values of environmental activities need to be evaluated.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental management 6 (1982), S. 337-342 
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Air pollution ; Economic development ; Air emission coefficients
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Relative to manufacturing, service activities are often considered by planners and officials to generate considerably less environmental pollution. This hypothesis is tested by means of an examination of the economic linkages of both manufacturing and service activities and of the resulting direct and indirect emissions of five air pollutants per dollar of output in the California statewide air basin and in four regional basins within the state. Overall acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis depends in part on the particular pollutant and air basin considered but, most importantly, on the judgement as to what activities are to be considered as “service” activities.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Environmental management 9 (1985), S. 443-448 
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: SIRO-PLAN ; Environmental planning ; Case study ; Australia ; Zoning scheme
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Environmental planning legislation in New South Wales now requires local government authorities to draw up statutory plans that take into account, among other concerns, both the biophysical and the social environmental issues within their jurisdictions. The SIRO-PLAN method of plan production provides a systematic mechanism for fulfilling this requirement. This article describes the application of the method by planning researchers over 18 months to the production of a Local Environmental Plan for a rural local government in New South Wales. The policy formulation, the purposive data collection, and the deliberate adjustment of plans in order to recognize interest group requirements were all found to be valuable features of the method, while the translation of the ultimately chosen land-use plan into the explicit regulatory controls available to the local government authority was found to require further refinement. The capacity of SIRO-PLAN to quantify the resolution of competing environmental concerns in the final plan, although of value to planning researchers, proved too arcane for traditionally trained planners.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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