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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 124 (1986), S. 919-930 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Keywords: Earthquake ; energy ; accelerogram
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract There remains much uncertainty on the absolute elastic wave energy released by fault rupture. Few direct estimates of the partition of seismic wave energy in ground shaking have been made. In this work, ground particle velocities from integrated accelerograms are used to compute the kinetic energy crossing unit area per unit time. Simplified theory for the near-field strong-motion case would appear to give a valid lower energy bound; the wave attenuation does not present a major problem. The partition of energy in predominantly P, S, and surface wave portions, for given frequency windows, is tabulated using strong-motion accelerograms recorded at different azimuths to the fault-sources of six California earthquakes (5.5〈M L〈7.2). Checks against earlier magnitudeM L and momentM 0 correlations indicate significantly higher overall wave energy outputs than expected, but further calibration is needed. The study demonstrates that stable estimates of frequency-dependent seismic wave energies in the nearfield can be obtained from strong-motion records. Hence, energy flux may have a wider application to risk mapping than previously thought. In particular, a shift from peak acceleration scaling to (kinetic) energy inputs for engineering design appears to involve only routine processing.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-157X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The January 17, 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7, 34.213° N, 118.537° W, depth = 18.4 km) was recorded extensively in the immediate source region by strong, ground motion accelerometers. The resulting seismograms show complex S wave patterns. Nevertheless, visual correlations of the strong-ground-motion velocity and displacement time-histories clearly identify two significant wave pulses: a secondary S pulse (called S2) arriving 3–5 seconds after the initial S wave pulse (called S1). A plausible assumption is that these phases are generated at areas on the rupturing thrust fault that experienced especially large slip. Conventional travel-time computations, relating the relative arrival times between the onsets of the primary S1 and secondary S2 phases, yield a hypocenter of the initiation point, constrained to a independently etimated fault plane, of the secondary wave source (called H2) at 34.26°N, 118.54° W, with a depth of 14.1 km; the 68% confidence error in depth is 1.3 km. This location is about 6 km up-dip and north from the estimated hypocenter, on the fault plane of the initial principal seismic source (called H1). The seismic moment for both the initial H1 and secondary source H2 was estimated from the SH displacement pulse. Values averaged over eight stations were 8.61 ± 9.56 × 1024 dyne-cm and 2.49 ± 2.31 × 1025 dyne-cm respectively. Reasons why the sum of the two seismic moments is smaller than the total estimated seismic moment of 1.2 × 1026 dyne-cm for the Northridge earthquake are discussed. The location of the initiation point of a second source H2 in the Northridge thrust faulting is consistent with independent computations of the fault slip pattern. The estimated stress drop for the initial and secondary sources are Δ σ1 = 150 ± 15 bars and Δ σ2 = 110 ± 11 bars, respectively.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Naturwissenschaften 63 (1976), S. 356-363 
    ISSN: 1432-1904
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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