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  • 1
    ISSN: 1572-8854
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The crystal structure of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-N-phenylsulfonamide (C18H14N2O4S), a derivative of sulfonamide, has been determined by X-ray diffraction method using CuKα radiation. The compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space groupP21/n, witha=24.463(1),b=5.745(2),c=11.428(3)Å andβ=94.39(2)°. The structure was solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least squares to a finalR value of 0.045 with 3032 unique reflections. The dihedral angle between the substituents phenyl ring B and the phenyl A is 94.7(3)°. The S atom is in the usual distorted tetrahedral configuration.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Partikel mit Ribonucleoprotein aus Spinatehloroplasten wurden isoliert und als wahrscheinliche Loci der Proteinsynthese bestimmt. Nach Chloroplastenaufschluss hemmte die Granafraktion mit hoher Ribonucleaseaktivität den Aminosäureneinbau. Der Einbau von Phenylalanin wird durch Polyuridylsäure gefördert und durch Polyadenylsäure nur nach Vorbehandlung der Ribosomen-Aggregate mit Ribonuclease gehemmt.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9532
    Keywords: quantum Cosmology ; Quantum Gravity ; Time ; Minisuperspace ; Wavefunction of the Universe PACS No. - 04.60, 98.80 Hw
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We start from the classical Hamiltonian constraint of general relativity to obtain the Einstein–Hamiltonian–Jacobi equation. We obtain a time parameter prescription demanding that geometry itself determines the time, not the matter field, such that the time so defined being equivalent to the time that enters into the Schrödinger equation. Using a semiclassical approximation we obtain an equation for quantum gravity in Schrödinger form containing time. We restrict ourselves to a minisuperspace description. Unlike matter field equation our equation is equivalent to the Wheeler–DeWitt equation in the sense that our solutions reproduce also the wavefunction of the Wheeler–DeWitt equation provided one evaluates the normalization constant according to the wormhole dominance proposal recently proposed by us.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Yeast ; Mitochondrial ; Mutants ; RNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary This is a description of a new class of temperature sensitive pet mutants in Saccharomyces cereviase that lose all or part of their mitochondrial RNA at the restrictive temperature. These mutants fall into 8 different complementation groups, mna1 to mna8, and 2 different classes based on their phenotype. Class I mutations, mna1-1 through mna5-1, cause complete or partial loss of mitochondrial RNA at the restrictive temperature. The mutation, mna1-1, is especially interesting since it causes a loss of both mitochondrial DNA and RNA when the mutant is grown on a fermentable carbon source at the restrictive temperature. However, when this mutant is grown at the permissive temperature on a non-fermentable carbon source then shifted to the restrictive temperature, only the mitochondrial RNA is lost. This indicates that the primary cause for the pet phenotype is due to the loss of mitochondrial RNA and not DNA. Class II mutations, mna6-1 through man8-1, cause complete loss of the 14S rRNA after growth at the restrictive temperature in a fermentable carbon source. This loss appears to be specific for the 14S rRNA, since all other transcripts probed by Northern analysis are normal.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1130
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Reference materials development activities in India started during the period 1955–1960 for quality control in the production and use of drugs and pharmaceuticals. While the practice of import and distribution gradually accelerated in some areas, including medical, environment etc., the earliest known development of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) within the country began with the preparation of metallurgical CRMs somewhere around 1965. A few more area-specific programs involving preparation of CRMs for quality control in the electronic industries, food and food products etc., began in the past decade. A common national program covering these activities was initiated in 1996, through organization of a national workshop on the subject and formation of a National Task Force for the development and use of reference materials in the country. The existing status and the priority needs of reference materials have been compiled by the Task Force, and a program has also been prepared for development of some of the urgently required CRMs within the country.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1181
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Es werden theoretische Untersuchungen des lokalen konvektiven Wärmeüberganges im Eintrittsbereich eines zylindrischen Rohres mit kombiniertem axialen und tangentialen Eintritt eines Fluids mit zeitunabhängigem Verhalten nach dem Potenzgesetz vorgestellt. Randbedingungen waren dabei konstanter Wärmestrom und konstante Wandtemperatur. Das theoretische Modell verwendet eine integrale Näherung der hydrodynamischen und thermischen Grenzschichttheorie. Es folgt eine funktionale Beziehung zwischen der lokalen Nusseltzahl (Nu z ) und den relevanten Eingangsparametern wie der verallgemeinerten Reynoldszahl $$\left( {Re_{G_i } } \right)$$ und der verallgemeinerten Prandtlzahl (PrG), die mit der tangentialen Eintrittsgeschwindigkeit gebildet werden sowie dem Verhältnis der axialen und tangentialen Geschwindigkeiten am Rohreintritt (VR), der Kennzahl des Strömungsverhaltens des Fluids (n) und dem Verhältnis von axialer Länge zu Rohrdurchmesser (z/D).
    Notes: Abstract Theoretical studies have been carried out to investigate the convective heat transfer coefficients at different locations in the entrance region of a cylindrical duct with combined axial and tangential entry of time-independent power-law fluids. Investigations have been performed with uniform heat flux and uniform wall temperature boundary conditions. Theoretical model uses integral approach of hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer theory to establish a functional relationship of local Nusselt number (Nu z ) with the pertinent input parameters such as generalised Reynolds number based on tangential velocity of injection $$\left( {Re_{G_i } } \right)$$ , generalised Prandtl number based on inlet tangential velocity (Pr G ), the ratio of axial-to-tangential velocity at the inlet to the duct (V R), the flow behaviour index of the fluid (n) and the ratio of axial-distance-to-duct-diameter (z/D).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Crystal violet from Gram stained S. aureus can be extracted completely by 95% ethanol if the stained bacteria is pre-treated with dilute sodium thiosulphate solution. Thiosulphate removes iodine form the cell component-dye-iodine complex instantaneously and renders the dye extractable by the differentiating medium. 1∶1 alcoholic solutions of aniline, dimethyl aniline, nitro-benzene, benzene, toluene or xylol can also extract the color from the stained S. aureus; the extraction with the first three solvents is almost exhaustive while with the latter solvents extraction is appreciable but incomplete. These solvents can form charge-transfer complexes with iodine. The findings indicate that the stability of the cell component-dye-iodine complex determines the Gram-character of the cell. A model hasbeen presented for the Gram cell component-dye-iodine complex.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Extraction of lipid by chloroform-methanol from Escherichia coli induces Gram positivity in the cells of this bacterium. It has been observed that approximately 1.5 times more lipid is extracted from Escherichia coli than from Staphylococcus aureus by this treatment. An increase of 1.5–1.8 fold in the retention of dye has been evident in the case of S. aureus where as this was 70–90 fold in the case of E. coli, which is 1/4th of the normal retention by S. aureus. The more lipid present in the cell wall or cell membrane, the less retention of dye seems to be exhibited by the bacteria. This also substantiates our model for Gram reaction presented in a previous communication.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. Metachromasia with toluidine blue could be induced by inositol hexaphosphate, the smallest chromotrope molecule so far reported. 2. The metachromatic compound, pink in color, and distinct from orthochromatic dye, could be separated by centrifugation. This complex could as well be decomposed by dil. HCl. 3. The stoichiometry of the metachromatic complex has been studied and the molar ratio of dye: phytate has been shown to vary with varying proportions of dye and phytate used in the reaction mixture and a maximum value of 10 could be obtained suggesting a steric hindrance for the attachment of dye to the phytate-molecule. 4. The divalent cations like, Ba++, Mg++, and Mn++ interfered with the formation of metachromatic complex, possibly competing with the dyes for the anionic sites of the phytate molecule.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Bubble policy ; Chemical mass balance receptor modeling ; Factor analysis ; Risk apportionment ; Risk reduction ; Source resolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Source resolution and risk apportionment of emission source categories for risk reduction purposes can be used to enhance the Bubble Policy of the Clean Air Act. This is performed by incorporating receptor modeling techniques of factor analysis and chemical mass balances to assess noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic inhalation risks to a target population for certain pollutants coming from major emission source categories in a steel plant air shed. Source resolution, using factor analysis, statistically interprets a “source” from ambient data. By subsequently quantifying risks from identified metal emission sources using chemical mass balances and risk apportionment, a total additive risk from main source contributors in the steel plant is estimated. From this methodology, the Bubble Policy can be enhanced by targeting only main risk sources or by “risk-trading” with minor impact sources to reduce the total risk (if deemed significant) without arbitrarily reducing risk for all sources in an industrial source complex’s “bubble.”
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