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  • 1
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Phase identifications and quantitative analyses of mixed crystals by means of abrasive stripping voltammetry are reported using covelliteklockmannite (CuSxSe1-x) and emplectite-chalcostibite (CuBix Sb1-xS2) mixed crystals as examples. The composition of CuSxSe1-x can be determined within a span of x=±0.03. Additionally the standard potential of the Cu/CuSe-electrode is measured to be E⋅  Cu/CuSe= −0.749 V vs. Ag/AgCl.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract A cell is described which allows in situ incident-light microscopy to be used for the analysis of solid state electrochemical reactions studied by abrasive stripping voltammetry. The cell provides the possibility to screen solid compounds with respect to their electrochromic properties without requiring the preparation of special electrodes on transparent and conducting materials. Silver octacyanomolybdate(IV) and silver octacyanotungstate(IV) have been used to study the performance of the cell because both compounds exhibit a stable electrochromic and voltammetric behaviour.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract New varistor-type polymer composites for low-voltage application have been developed. The filler is made of commercially available doped ZnO-varistor powder. The polycrystalline filler particles act as varistors due to their typical grain-boundary structure. The presented varistor composite materials show very low values for the breakdown field strength down to 200 V mm−1, as compared with already existing varistor-type composites, and fairly highα-values in the range of 10.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Synthesis principles have been developed for the preparation of solution derived precursors that can be selectively converted to desired refractory materials, as powders, fibres or thick films. The precursors are prepared from aqueous or ethylene glycol solutions containing a pyrolysable organic compound (carbonaceous gel or saccharose) and a soluble molybdenum or tungsten compound (peroxo acid or ethylene glycolate). The concentrated solutions exhibit rheological properties that allow fibre drawing and production of thick films. The sequence of the high temperature reactions – pyrolysis, reduction, carburization – was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray analysis and nitrogen adsorption. Because of the high homogeneity of the reactants, carbon and transition metal suboxides in the pyrolysed precursors, the observed carburization temperatures (800–1200 °C) are lower than those used industrially. Most of the intermediate and final products–carbon/oxide composites, Mo(C, O), Mo2C, W2C, and WC – are materials of a high Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area (50–200 m2 g−1).
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Empirical economics 14 (1989), S. 1-19 
    ISSN: 1435-8921
    Keywords: Input-output-model ; “make”- and “use”-matrices ; disaggregated econometric model
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Notes: Abstract The author presents a neoclassical input-output-model for the Federal Republic of Germany, which is based on “make”- and “use”-tables instead of input-output-tables. The advantage of this approach is, that the model is able to discriminate volumes and prices for industries and commodities. The analytical frame-work gives economic hypotheses to explain the coefficients of “make”- and “use”-matrices. So a blended functional/institutional input-output-model can be constructed, which offers the opportunity to use different schemes for the disaggregation of final demand and primary inputs. The article describes the theoretical model and the numerical specification of an econometric model, which is based on it. At the end the results of an ex-post-projection with this econometric model are discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1435-0661
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: 15N N gas emission method requires determination of the N2 mole masses 28, 29, and 30. Direct determination of 30N2 which is not possible with all isotope mass spectrometers, can be omitted if gas samples are equilibrated prior to isotope analysis. Because a previously published off-line equilibration procedure was inaccurate and laborious, a continuous-flow procedure was developed and evaluated in this study. Analysis of 29N2 and 28N2 was performed with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer coupled to an elemental analyzer. The N2 fraction of the samples was equilibrated in an electrodeless discharge unit placed within the interface connecting both instruments. Measuring sensitivity for the fraction of 15N-pool-derived N2 (d) and 15N atom fraction of the 15N pool (a p) was evaluated by analyzing 15N standard gases at d= 5 × 10–6 to 5 × 10–4 and a p= 0.4903, corresponding to δ15N = 1.3 to 68.3‰. Measured values of d and a p satisfactorily coincided with theoretical values. Coefficients of variation of d and a p ranged from 0.13 to 19.59% and from 0.66 to 12.86%, respectively. Precision was higher than the off-line equilibration procedure and also higher than methods including direct measurement of 30N2.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Acidification ; Agroecosystem ; Ferrallitic soils ; Oil-palm ; Nutrient balances
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The nutrient and base status of small-holder and industrial oil-palm plantations was compared on a Ferralsol in the humid zone of the southern Ivory Coast. The plantations were about 14 years old and derived from savanna. The measured nutrient contents (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca), the pH-values, the CEC and the calculated nutrient balances showed, that: - the concentrated applications of KCl-fertilizer in the industrial plantations (up to 216 kg KCl/ha in one application) are responsible for an accelerated acidification of these Ferralsols, already of low base saturation (S-value〈10%, CEC〈10 meq/100 g soil). - both the small-holder and the industrial plantations on the whole are stable agro-ecosystems, but will only be able to sustain present production in the future if the depletion of K, Mg and Ca is avoided. Thus, it is recommended that the soil be permanently covered by cover-crops or weeds tolerated (combined with mulching) to act as a nutrient bank and to avoid erosion on slopes. Furthermore, the KCl-applications in the industrial plantations should be divided to minimize leaching losses and further acidification.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-6830
    Keywords: ion channels ; K+ channels ; Ca2+ channels ; GABA ; facilitation ; depression ; exocytosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-157X
    Keywords: Normal faulting ; Gulf of Corinth
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present the results of a multidisciplinary study of the Ms = 6.2, 1995, June 15, Aigion earthquake (Gulf of Corinth, Greece). In order to constrain the rupture geometry, we used all available data from seismology (local, regional and teleseismic records of the mainshock and of aftershocks), geodesy (GPS and SAR interferometry), and tectonics. Part of these data were obtained during a postseismic field study consisting of the surveying of 24 GPS points, the temporary installation of 20 digital seismometers, and a detailed field investigation for surface fault break. The Aigion fault was the only fault onland which showed detectable breaks (〈 4 cm). We relocated the mainshock hypocenter at 10 km in depth, 38 ° 21.7 ′ N, 22 ° 12.0 ′ E, about 15 km NNE to the damaged city of Aigion. The modeling of teleseismic P and SH waves provides a seismic moment Mo = 3.4 1018 N.m, a well constrained focal mechanism (strike 277 °, dip 33 °, rake − 77°), at a centroidal depth of 7.2 km, consistent with the NEIC and the revised Harvard determinations. It thus involved almost pure normal faulting in agreement with the tectonics of the Gulf. The horizontal GPS displacements corrected for the opening of the gulf (1.5 cm/year) show a well-resolved 7 cm northward motion above the hypocenter, which eliminates the possibility of a steep, south-dipping fault plane. Fitting the S-wave polarization at SERG, 10 km from the epicenter, with a 33° northward dipping plane implies a hypocentral depth greater than 10 km. The north dipping fault plane provides a poor fit to the GPS data at the southern points when a homogeneous elastic half-space is considered: the best fit geodetic model is obtained for a fault shallower by 2 km, assuming the same dip. We show with a two-dimensional model that this depth difference is probably due to the distorting effect of the shallow, low-rigidity sediments of the gulf and of its edges. The best-fit fault model, with dimensions 9 km E–W and 15 km along dip, and a 0.87 m uniform slip, fits InSAR data covering the time of the earthquake. The fault is located about 10 km east-northeast to the Aigion fault, whose surface breaks thus appears as secondary features. The rupture lasted 4 to 5 s, propagating southward and upward on a fault probably outcropping offshore, near the southern edge of the gulf. In the shallowest 4 km, the slip – if any – has not exceeded about 30 cm. This geometry implies a large directivity effect in Aigion, in agreement with the accelerogram aig which shows a short duration (2 s) and a large amplitude (0.5 g) of the direct S acceleration. This unusual low-angle normal faulting may have been favoured by a low-friction, high pore pressure fault zone, or by a rotation of the stress directions due to the possible dip towards the south of the brittle-ductile transition zone. This fault cannot be responsible for the long term topography of the rift, which is controlled by larger normal faults with larger dip angles, implying either a seldom, or a more recently started activity of such low angle faults in the central part of the rift.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9982
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
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