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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 42.80 ; 85.30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Optical projection of masks is a very troublesome task if dimensions are in the submicron range. It is difficult to get an undistorted image in the resist. This problem can be overcome by introducing corrections in the penultimate mask. Till now this has been done by a trial and error method in which an acceptable pattern is made only after a time consuming iterative process. In this paper a description will be given of the image forming process in which diffraction at the penultimate mask and at the aperture of the lens are the critical features. Based upon this theory correction formulas are derived for the direct design of penultimate masks. Rules for maximum edge sharpness are given, so that the tolerance demands on the production process can be relaxed. Extensive experimental measurements are in good agreement with theory. It will be shown theoretically as well as practically that by asymmetrical arrangement of the optical system images of gratings with 0.2–0.3 μm linewidth can be obtained.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Applied physics 2 (1973), S. 137-142 
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: Thin MnBi films ; Coercive force ; Rayleigh curve
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Statistical Rayleigh-curve theory is applied to thin evaporated MnBi films in order to obtain information concerning the density of wall pinning centra. The treatment results in a prediction of the coercive forceH c and the average distance between adjacent wall pinning centra, 2L 0. The coercive forceH cis also measured experimentally. The results of the two methods are in good agreement with each other. The influence of dislocations on the coercive force is discussed briefly.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Protoplast fusion ; Parasexual hybrids ; Electric field pulse
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Under the action of a high electric field pulse a pronounced stimulation of yeast protoplast fusion initiated by polyethylene glycol and Ca 2+ ions was found. The fusion rate was enhanced by a factor of 200 for different genetically marked strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as compared with fusion without electric field treatment. Genetic evidence for fusion has been obtained by isolating parasexually produced hybrids resulting from combination of the genomes of both mutants. Our method allows the production of a large number of parasexual hybrids for different purposes.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 206 (1967), S. 309-318 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A homogeneous and thermal plasma was produced by a modified T-tube. In a shot to shot analysis the lines of several multiplets of singly ionized Nitrogen were investigated as to their Starkeffect. Densities were determined by comparing the measured halfwidths of some neutral Helium-lines with the well established theory of Starkbroadening of these lines. The temperature followed from the relative intensities of the measured Helium- and Nitrogenlines assuming partial thermal equilibrium. The results of this experiment deviate from previous measurements ofDay et al. as well as from the theory of Starkbroadening in isolated lines of the heavier elements byGriem. It is shown (1) that the broadening in N II is a rough factor of two larger than theoretically expected, (2) that linebroadening in N II is proportional to the density, (3) that the Stark broadened lines follow dispersion profiles to the distance of several halfwidths from the line center.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 206 (1967), S. 184-188 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Some Ar II transition probabilities were measured absolutely using a tungsten ribbon lamp as a calibration standard. The plasma was produced by a conical Theta-pinch. Gas mixtures of H∶Ar and He∶Ar were used to exclude inhomogeneity of the layer as a possible source of error. Electron densities and temperatures were determined by measuring Hydrogen and Helium line profiles respectively, and line to continuum intensity ratios. The measured values can be compared with results of earlier experiments and with newer theoretical calculations. The agreement between the results of this experiment and the theoretical values is satisfactory.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 207 (1967), S. 404-410 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Experimental results concerning the density-dependent relative populations of two energetically different states of the singly ionized Oxygenatom are compared to theory. Opposed to the latter, the experiment gave relative populations consistent with the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption down to electron densities of 1016(cm−3). The plasma was produced by a modifiedT-tube and the measured effect may be a peculiarity of the particular plasma investigated. The conclusion may be drawn that the plasma radiates in thermal equilibrium at much lower densities than theoretically expected. If a theoretical estimate ofGriem may be assumed formally correct, a correction factor of the order of ten can be applied. This granted, even the states of doubly ionized species may be assumed to be populated as in thermal equilibrium at densities exceeding 1017(cm−3).
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The profiles of some lines of the second Lyman-series of HeII, broadened by microscopic Starkeffect in plasmas of given temperatures and densities were calculated and compared to available experimental data. The comparison yielded reasonable agreement as to the resulting halfwidths and lesser agreement in details of the line-centers and -wings.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract TheQ β-values of85, 86Se,90Br,93Kr,103Nb and103Tc were measured using massseparated sources produced at the on-line mass separator LOHENGRIN. The experimental values are compared with mass formula predictions. Taking also into account earlier results, a subshell-closure effect for the neutron numberN=56 and proton numberZ=38 is shown to exist.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract With sources obtained from the on-line mass separator LOHENGRIN the beta-decay energies of131Sn,134Sb,135,136Te,143,146Ba and146La have been determined from measuredβ-endpoint energies. The experimental values are compared with the predictions of several mass formulae.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 199 (1967), S. 445-455 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract It is shown that by solely measuring intensities without explicit knowledge of the plasmatemperature or density absolute transition probabilities in the higher ions can be obtained. To do this one procures a mixture of Helium with the testgas and uses Helium as the “thermometergas” by determining the relative intensities of chosen He I and He II transitions. This measurement, however, is not used to determine an actual temperature but rather to deduce directly the relative populations in the test-gas-ions. This becomes possible if for certain levels a combination of ionization- and exitation potentials results in the same value for Helium and the testgas. An experimental test has been performed with Oxygen as an example and absolute O III-oszillator strength are quoted.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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