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  • Articles  (36)
  • Springer  (34)
  • Mineralogical Society of America  (2)
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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The standard Lown-type capacitor discharge waveform was compared with a single half-cycle 60-Hz sinusoid for effectiveness of defibrillation. Both shock types were used in attempts to defibrillate a series of dogs over a range of intensities from that below the minimum required for defibrillation to values well above those which consistently were successful. An on-line computer was used to monitor energy, peak current, and peak voltage of each shock. The results were plotted as percent success vs each parameter and comparisons were made at the 80% level. The half-cycle sinusoid required 18% more energy but 20% less peak current and 15% less peak voltage for 80% probability of success at these intensity levels. These results indicate that the half-cycle 60-Hz sinusoid is a reasonable alternative as a defibrillating waveform for low-energy applications (open chest surgery, some pediatric cases, and small animal applications) where its advantages of waveform unaffected by load impedance, and simplicity of circuit, may be realized.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution 230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43-1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the 230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant 230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: creatine kinase ; mitochondria ; respiration ; contraction ; regulation ; thermodynamics ; compartmentation ; functional coupling ; metabolic channelling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Some historical aspects of development of the concepts of functional coupling, metabolic channelling, compartmentation and energy transfer networks are reviewed. Different quantitative approaches, including kinetic and mathematical modeling of energy metabolism, intracellular energy transfer and metabolic regulation of energy production and fluxes in the cells in vivo are analyzed. As an example of the system with metabolic channelling, thermodynamic aspects of the functioning the mitochondrial creatine kinase functionally coupled to the oxidative phosphorylation are considered. The internal thermodynamics of the mitochondrial creatine kinase reaction is similar to that for other isoenzymes of creatine kinase, and the oxidative phosphorylation process specifically influences steps of association and dissociation of MgATP with the enzyme due to channelling of ATP from adenine nucleotide translocase. A new paradigm of muscle bioenergetics - the paradigm of energy transfer and feedback signaling networks based on analysis of compartmentation phenomena and structural and functional interactions in the cell is described. Analysis of the results of mathematical modeling of the compartmentalized energy transfer leads to conclusion that both calcium and ADP, which concentration changes synchronously in contraction cycle, may simultaneously activate oxidative phosphorylation in the muscle cells in vivo. The importance of the phosphocreatine circuit among other pathways of intracellular energy transfer network is discussed on the basis of the recent data published in the literature, with some experimental demonstration. The results of studies of perfused rat hearts with completely inhibited creatine kinase show significantly decreased work capacity and respectively, energy fluxes, in these hearts in spite of significant activation of adenylate kinase system (Dzeja et al. this volume). These results, combined with those of mathematical analysis of the energy metabolism of hearts of transgenic mice with switched off creatine kinase isoenzymes confirm the importance of phosphocreatine pathway for energy transfer for cell function and energetics in mature heart and many other types of cells, as one of major parts of intracellular energy transfer network and metabolic regulation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es wird gezeigt, daß der Einfluß des Elektron-Spins auf die Widerstandsänderung eines Metalls in einem Magnetfeld wesentlich kleiner ist als der von der Lorentzschen Kraft herrührende Effekt, im Gegensatz zu einer von F. Bloch gegebenen Abschätzung. Bis jetzt hat man keine befriedigende Erklärung weder für die neuen Kapitzaschen Messungen bei großen Feldern, noch für den normalen Effekt bei kleinen Feldern.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 64 (1930), S. 650-656 
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Es werden die vier transversalen galvanomagnetischen und thermomagnetischen Effekte bei adiabatischer Anordnung nach der Sommerfeldschen Theorie berechnet und die Beziehungen unter diesen Effekten theoretisch untersucht. Die verschiedenen thermoelektrischen Effekte in homogenen Kreisen werden diskutiert.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of the history of biology 16 (1983), S. 171-175 
    ISSN: 1573-0387
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , History
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of the history of biology 16 (1983), S. 259-310 
    ISSN: 1573-0387
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , History
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: Manganese nodules ; Thorium dating ; Uranium isotopes ; Peru basin ; TIMS
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Thorium- and uranium isotopes were measured in a diagenetic manganese nodule from the Peru basin applying alpha- and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Alpha-counting of 62 samples was carried out with a depth resolution of 0.4 mm to gain a high-resolution230Thexcess profile. In addition, 17 samples were measured with TIMS to obtain precise isotope concentrations and isotope ratios. We got values of 0.06–0.59 ppb (230Th), 0.43–1.40 ppm (232Th), 0.09–0.49 ppb (234U) and 1.66–8.24 ppm (238U). The uranium activity ratio in the uppermost samples (1–6 mm) and in two further sections in the nodule at 12.5±1.0 mm and 27.3–33.5 mm comes close to the present ocean water value of 1.144±0.004. In two other sections of the nodule, this ratio is significantly higher, probably reflecting incorporation of diagenetic uranium. The upper 25 mm section of the Mn nodule shows a relatively smooth exponential decrease in the230Thexcess concentration (TIMS). The slope of the best fit yields a growth rate of 110 mm/Ma up to 24.5 mm depth. The section from 25 to 30.3 mm depth shows constant230Thexcess concentrations probably due to growth rates even faster than those in the top section of the nodule. From 33 to 50 mm depth, the growth rate is approximately 60 mm/Ma. Two layers in the nodule with distinct laminations (11–15 and 28–33 mm depth) probably formed during the transition from isotopic stage 8 to 7 and in stage 5e, respectively. The Mn/Fe ratio shows higher values during interglacials 5 and 7, and lower ones during glacials 4 and 6. A comparison of our data with data from adjacent sediment cores suggests (a) a variable supply of hydrothermal Mn to sediments and Mn nodules of the Peru basin or (b) suboxic conditions at the water sediment interface during periods with lower Mn/Fe ratios.
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