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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0762
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Experimental hives obtained from cordovan queens that were instrumentally inseminated with semen from one cordovan and one Italian drone were set up and allowed to swarm. Cordovan provides a resessive genetic marker system (cuticle color) so that the workers from the cordovan and Italian male lines are distinguishable. Our results show that these patrilineal worker groups segregate non-randomly during colony fission and this segregation cannot be explained by observed age structure. Evidence of innate kin recognition in bees has been previously established. We argue that kin recognition could be responsible for the observed non-random grouping of kin during swarming.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1615-6102
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: cucumber ; light-regulated gene expression ; NADH-dependent hydroxypyruvate reductase ; organ-specific gene expression ; peroxisome ; photorespiration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The 5′- and 3′-flanking regions of HPRA, a cucumber gene that encodes hydroxypyruvate reductase, were evaluated for regulatory activity with respect to light responsiveness and organ specificity. To define the functional regions of the 5′-flanking region of HPRA, a series of deletions was generated and the remaining portions fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene (uidA) containing a minimal 35S promoter truncated at −90. The region from −66 to +39 was found to be necessary for light-regulated expression of the uidA reporter gene, while the region from −382 to −67 was found to be necessary for its leaf-specific expression. Further deletion of the HPRA 5′ flanking region to −590 resulted in high levels of root expression, suggesting the presence of a negative regulatory element responsible for silencing root expression of the HPRA gene between −590 and −383. The 3′-flanking region of the HPRA gene downstream of the polyadenylation site contains several sequence motifs resembling regulatory elements present in the promoters of several light-responsive genes. An 823 bp portion of the HPRA 3′-flanking region containing these putative regulatory elements enhanced GUS expression in leaves when placed downstream of the uidA reporter gene in the forward orientation, but not in the reverse orientation. When placed 5′ of the −90 35S promoter, the 823 bp fragment enhanced slightly, independently of orientation, the root tip-specific expression pattern intrinsic to the −90 35S promoter, indicating that in some cases this region can act as a transcriptional enhancer.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: cucumber ; cytokinin-responsive ; DNA-binding proteins ; hydroxypyruvate reductase ; transcription
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Transcription of the cucumber hpr-A gene is responsive to cytokinin and light. To investigate the molecular basis for transcriptional regulation by cytokinin, we have identified DNA sequences and proteins that may be involved in the regulation of hpr-A gene expression. Transient expression assays in etiolated cucumber cotyledons indicate that the 315 bp fragment (−382 to −67) contains sequences necessary for cytokinin responsiveness of the luciferase reporter gene. Band shift assays detected cytokinin-enhanced and -reduced protein binding sites in a 97 bp fragment (−382 to −285) upstream of the hpr-A gene. DNase I footprinting identified two protein-protected sites, a 15 bp sequence, 5′-AAATGACGAAAATGC-3′, that contains an as-1 TGACG motif found in other plant promoters, and a 13 bp sequence, 5′-AAGATTGATTGAG-3′, of unknown function. Two-dimensional band shift analysis of the cytokinin-responsive DNA protein complex revealed the presence of six DNA protein interactions. Band shift assays showed that cytokinin and light have different effects on the interaction of nuclear proteins to the 97 bp fragment of the hpr-A gene. These data suggest that cytokinin and light do not share identical signal transduction pathways in regulating hpr-A gene expression.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Foundations of physics 29 (1999), S. 133-135 
    ISSN: 1572-9516
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7489
    Keywords: Design metrics ; design metrics analyzer ; metrics model ; software metrics ; software quality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Computer Science
    Notes: Abstract Metric monsters are stumbling blocks that prevent software metrics-guided methodologies from attaining product and process improvement. Metric monsters can occur during the identification, collection or application of software metrics. In our research, we have developed and tested our design metrics over a five-year period and have found them to be excellent predictors of error-prone modules. Based on this research, we will identify some of the monsters that occur in the quantitative analyses of software and its development processes, and present our approach in formulating a design metrics model that avoids these monsters. This model consists of software tools, guidelines and actions for the application of software design metrics.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1522-9602
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract We explore evolutionarily stable co-evolution of host-macroparasite interactions in a discrete-time two-species population dynamics model, in which the dynamics may be stable, cyclic or chaotic. The macroparasites are assumed to harm host individuals through decreased reproductive output. Hosts may develop costly immune responses to defend themselves against parasites. Parasites compete with conspecifics by adjusting their fecundities. Overall, the presence of both parasites and the immune response in hosts produces more stable dynamics and lower host population sizes than that observed in the absence of the parasites. In our evolutionary analyses, we show that maximum parasite fecundity is always an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS), irrespective of the type of population interaction, and that maximum parasite fecundity generally induces a minimum parasite population size through over-exploitation of the host. Phenotypic polymorphisms with respect to immunity in the host species are common and expected in ESS host strategies: the benefits of immunication depend on the frequency of the immune hosts in the population. In particular, the steady-state proportions of immune hosts depend, in addition to all the parameters of the parasite dynamics only on the cost of immunity and on the virulence of parasites in susceptible hosts. The implicit ecological dynamics of the host-parasite interaction affect the proportion of immune host individuals in the population. Furthermore, when changes in certain population parameters cause the dynamics of the host-parasite interaction to move from stability to cyclicity and then to chaos, the proportion of immune hosts tends to decrease; however, we also detected counter-examples to this result. As a whole, incorporating immunological and genetic aspects, as well as life-history trade-offs, into host-macroparasite dynamics produces a rich extension to the patterns observed in the models of ecological interactions and epidemics, and deserves more attention than is currently the case.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 22 (1980), S. 1415-1440 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Despite the chronic and debilitative nature of the infection they cause, several species of microsporidia and neogregarines offer a good potential as microbial control agents, particularly against insect pests of high economic thresholds. Techniques for mass production of protozoa have usually involved per os, inoculation or injection of the protozoa into their usual or alternate hosts. The spores are harvested subsequently from heavily infected host tissues by grinding, filtration, and differential centrifugation. Although fresh spores are used in most field tests, the spores of many species can be stored with high survival either frozen or in water at low temperatures (0-4°C) for up to several months. Sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a serious factor limiting spore persistence. However, the protozoa do not appear to be significantly limiting spore persistence. However, the protozoa do not appears to be significantly more susceptible to UV radiation than other insect pathogens and persistence can be prolonged with UV protectants. Most field tests with protozoa have involved the application of spores in sprays and have usually resulted in a high degree of infection in the target host species. The potential for control of few species has been improved by formulation of spores in to baits, and the potential of other species will likely increase if suitable bait formulation can be devised in the future. One species, Nosema locustae, formulated as a bait, has been successfully used to control grasshoppers on rangelands. Limited laboratory and field studies have also suggested that increased short-term control might be obtained if candidate protozoan species can be combined with certain insecticides. While recent and increased efforts have been devoted to assess the potential of protozoa as microbial control agents, potential hazards to nontarget organism have been investigated for only three species. Their close relation taxonomically to protozoa pathogenic for mammals will necessitate careful evaluation of the safety of candidate control species for nontarget organisms.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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