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  • Springer  (2)
  • Nature Publishing Group  (1)
  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract As part of a larger 3-yr study, container-grown seedlings of black cherry (Prunus serotina) red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Ouercus rubra), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), white ash (Fraxinus americana), white oak (Ouercus alba), yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), and yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis) were exposed to 0,0.075, or 0.15 μL L-1 O3 in laboratory controlled-environment chambers for 6 hr d−1 on 2 consecutive days for 12 weeks. On the third consecutive day of each week, plants were treated for 45 min with precipitation at pH 3.0 or 4.2. The only significant foliar symptoms were induced by the O3 treatments, and the severity of symptoms was not influenced by precipitation pH. The most common symptom was a dark, adaxial stipple which was most severe on the oldest leaves. Equations were developed to express the influence of leaf position on percent leaf injury following 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. Based on percent leaf tissue showing stipple and defoliation following exposure to 0.15 μL L−1 O3, the most sensitive species to O3 was black cherry, followed by sweetgum, yellow-poplar, white ash, red maple and yellow birch. Red oak and white oak foliage did not exhibit stipple.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: dimethyl sulfide ; sulfur dioxide ; DMS oxidation ; SO2 ; wet/dry deposition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract This study reports comparisonsbetween model simulations, based on current sulfurmechanisms, with the DMS, SO2 and DMSOobservational data reported by Bandy et al.(1996) in their 1994 Christmas Island field study. For both DMS and SO2, the model results werefound to be in excellent agreement with theobservations when the observations were filtered so asto establish a common meteorological environment. Thisfiltered DMS and SO2 data encompassedapproximately half of the total sampled days. Basedon these composite profiles, it was shown thatoxidation of DMS via OH was the dominant pathway withno more than 5 to 15% proceeding through Cl atoms andless than 3% through NO3. This analysis wasbased on an estimated DMS sea-to-air flux of 3.4 ×109 molecs cm-2 s-1. The dominant sourceof BL SO2 was oxidation of DMS, the overallconversion efficiency being evaluated at 0.65 ± 0.15. The major loss of SO2 was deposition to theocean's surface and scavenging by aerosol. Theresulting combined first order k value was estimated at 1.6 × 10-5 s-1. In contrast to the DMSand SO2 simulations, the model under-predictedthe observed DMSO levels by nearly a factor of 50. Although DMSO instrument measurement problems can notbe totally ruled out, the possibility of DMSO sourcesother than gas phase oxidation of DMS must beseriously considered and should be explored in futurestudies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 304 (1983), S. 427-429 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] During the daytime, gaseous OH and HO2 radicals are photo-chemically produced in the atmosphere10-12. Within a cloud, these radicals can be rapidly scavenged by cloud droplets, thereby resulting in a source of free radicals to cloudwater13. Once in the aqueous phase, OH and HO2 initiate a complex ...
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