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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1157
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Archived data, together with field observations collected between 1980 and 1982 off the west coast of Korea, suggest that the onset of winter monsoon winds in late fall initiates a residual southward flow that potentially carries large volumes of resuspended bottom sediments into the Korea Strait. During the calm conditions of summer, muds are replenished by high river discharges and reform the band of soft material, which characteristically occurs as a series of mudflats near the coast. Thus, these mudflats serve as a temporary storage facility during summer accumulation and as a source during winter erosion.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract New secretion vectors containing the Bacillus sp. endoxylanase signal sequence were constructed for the secretory production of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. The E. coli alkaline phosphatase structural gene fused to the endoxylanase signal sequence was expressed from the trc promoter in various E. coli strains by induction with IPTG. Among those tested, E. coli HB101 showed the highest efficiency of secretion (up to 25.3% of total proteins). When cells were induced with 1 mM IPTG, most of the secreted alkaline phosphatase formed inclusion bodies in the periplasm. However, alkaline phosphatase could be produced as a soluble form without reduction of expression level by inducing with less (0.01 mM) IPTG, and greater than 90% of alkaline phosphatase could be recovered from the periplasm by the simple osmotic shock method. Fed-batch cultures were carried out to examine the possibility of secretory protein production at high cell density. Up to 5.2 g/l soluble alkaline phosphatase could be produced in the periplasm by the pH-stat fed-batch cultivation of E. coli HB101 harboring pTrcS1PhoA. These results demonstrate the possibility of efficient secretory production of recombinant proteins in E. coli by high cell density cultivation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract Although many studies have examined the influence of culture conditions on the production and composition of polysaccharides, little is known about the factors influencing the quality of exopolysaccharides (EPS). In this work we studied the effect of yeast extract on the production, composition and molecular weight of the EPS zooglan produced by Zoogloea ramigera 115SLR. This bacterium was grown on a new completely defined synthetic medium and on a medium containing yeast extract. Growth and polysaccharide production performances were comparable on the two media with a glucose to exopolysaccharide conversion yield of 35% (g/g). The polysaccharides produced on these two media have an identical composition but a different molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. The yeast extract medium leads to a more homogeneous polysaccharide solution.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Pseudomonas 135, a facultative methylotroph, was cultivated on methanol as a sole carbon and energy source for the accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). The cells grew fairly well on minimal synthetic medium containing 0.5% (v/v) of methanol at pH 7.0 and 30° C. The maximum specific growth rate was determined to be 0.26–0.28 h−1 with a growth yield of 0.38 in the optimized growth medium. For stimulation of PHB accumulation in the cells, deficiency of nutrients such as NH inf4 sup+ , Mg2+ and PO inf4 sup3− was crucial even though cell growth was significantly suppressed. The PHB content of a 40-h culture was determined to be 37% of the total cell mass in NH inf4 sup+ -limited medium, 42.5% on Mg2+-deficient medium, and 34.5% on PO inf4 sup3− -deficient medium. The maximum content of PHB in the cells could reach 55% in NH inf4 sup+ -limited fed-batch culture. The average relative molecular eight determined by gel permeation chromatography was 3.7 × 105 in NH inf4 sup+ -limited culture, 2.5 × 105 in Mg2+-deficientmedium, and 3.1 × 105 in PO inf4 sup3− -deficient medium. Polydispersity determined in each culture was relatively high (about 10–11). The solid PHB had a melting temperature of 173° C.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-2048
    Keywords: Arginine decarboxylase ; Auxin in somatic embryogenesis ; Cell culture (polyamines) ; Dnucus (polyamines in embryogenesis) ; Embryogenesis somatic ; Polyamine ; S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Polyamine levels and the activities of two polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.19) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50), were determined during somatic embryogenesis of carrot (Daucus carota L.) cell cultures. Embryogenic cultures showed severalfold increases in polyamine levels over nondifferentiating controls. A mutant cell line that failed to form embryos but grew at the same rate as the wild-type line also failed to show increases in polyamine levels, thus providing evidence that this increased polyamine content was in fact associated with the development of embryos. Furthermore, inhibition of these increases in polyamines caused by drugs inhibited embryogenesis and the effect was reversible with spermidine. The activities of arginine decarboxylase and Sadenosylmethionine decarboxylase were found to be suppressed by auxin; however, the specific effects differed between exogenous 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and endogenous indole-3-acetic acid. The results indicate that increased polyamine levels are required for cellular differentiation and development occurring during somatic embryogenesis in carrot cell cultures.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract A soluble fraction of coal tar pitch (CP) in tetrahydrofuran (THF) was reacted with p-benzoquinone (BQ) at 160 and 180°C and followed by carbonization and graphitization. The reaction and carbonization behavior were monitored in-situ by using differential scanning calorimeter, high-temperature 1H NMR and high-temperature ESR. The reactions of CP and BQ resulted in an increase in molecular weight with an increase in BQ concentration. Such molecular weight increases led to the formation of a less ordered structure due to the reduced mobility of the molecules. The relative order of the carbonized materials was determined by using polarized light microscope and X-ray diffraction. The molecular size of the precursor was recognized as an important factor in determining the morphology of carbon materials.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-272X
    Keywords: tolerance ; clearance ; optimization ; mechanical error ; mechanism ; lubricated joint
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This paper addresses an analytical approach to tolerance optimization for planar mechanisms with lubricated joints based on mechanical error analysis. The mobility method is applied to consider the lubrication effects at joints and planar mechanisms are stochastically defined by using the clearance vector model for mechanical error analysis. The uncertainties considered in the analysis are tolerances on link lengths and radial clearances and these are selected as design variables. To show the validity of the proposed method for mechanical error analysis, it is applied to two examples, and the results obtained are compared with those of Monte Carlo simulations. Based on the mechanical error analysis, tolerance optimizations are applied to the examples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Keywords: Key words Aging ; Poly(vinyl alcohol) ; Gel ; Syndiotacticity ; High molecular weight
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract The properties of the aged gels of high molecular weight syndiotacticity-rich poly(vinyl alcohol)s (HMW S-PVAs) with different syndiotactic diad (s-diad) contents were investigated. HMW S-PVA gels with s-diad content of 61.5% and 58.2% showed the rapid increases of the syneresis and the turbidity from the early stage of aging time, which is ascribable to the phase separation, while that with s-diad content of 55.7% did not. From the morphological study, it was confirmed that the phase separation in HMW S-PVA gel with s-diad content of 61.5% occurred without the liquid-liquid phase separation in sol state, whereas both the liquid-liquid phase separation in sol state and the subsequent phase separation in gel state occurred in the case of HMW S-PVA gel with s-diad content of 58.2%. On the other hand, HMW S-PVA gel with s-diad content of 55.7% showed neither the liquid-liquid phase separation in sol state nor the phase separation in gel state in the long period of time. It was also confirmed from wide angle X-ray diffractogram that the crystallization was accompanied by the phase separation in gel state in the aging process of PVA gel. However, the crystallization was hindered by the fast network formation at the initial stage of time. Later the syndiotacticity promoted the crystallization. The tensile modulus of HMW S-PVA gel with higher syndiotacticity increased more significantly with time.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-12-11
    Description: Parametric study of a hydraulic centrifugal pump with backward curved blades has been performed numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The shear stress transport turbulence model was used for analysis of turbulence. The finite volume method and an unstructured grid system were used for the numerical solution. The optimal grid system in the computational domain was selected through a grid dependency test. Tested parameters were related to the geometry of the impeller and volute: seven variables defining the hub and shroud contours and the blades angle of impeller, and two variables defining the inlet width and expansion angle of volute. The effects of these parameters on the hydrodynamic performance of the centrifugal pump have been investigated. It was found that the centrifugal water pump with the twisted blades has the enhancing efficiency compared to the straight blades pump.
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-09-17
    Description: The pore generation technology using PAHM (Poly-acrylonitrile Hollow Microsphere) was studied in order to reduce the weights of tableware. In this study, we verify the property of modified slurry and plasticity of green body by adding PAHM. The modified slurry was prepared by adding 25~55vol% of PAHM to the slurry for whiteware. The viscosity of slurry was controlled to be low value (25~45vol%). However, the viscosity of modified slurry increased and the plasticity of modified green body decreased inside the 45~55vol% range. The formed specimen by slip casting was fired at 1225 °C, 1240°C. As the amount of PAHM content increased, the weight decreased and the addition of 45vol/% of PAHM resulted in a weight drop of 39%. However, when the PAHM content increased, the strength decreases over 50%. This is caused by the presence of a large volume of surface defects (pores) and defects from the agglomeration of PAHM.
    Print ISSN: 1757-8981
    Electronic ISSN: 1757-899X
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
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